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Written By: Edward James Gilbert-Thunder Bay, Ontario,Canada

Date: July 4,2018


Harry Samuel Pearmund was born 1865 in Richmond, Surrey, one of eight children born to Samuel Pearmund, a painter/decorator/builder born 1835 in Richmond, Surrey and Emma Pearmund ,nee Dale, born 1835 in Richmond, Surrey.

Harry was living  with his parents at Alma Villas, 5 Rosemont Road  in Richmond, Surrey at the time of the 1871 and 1881 census, and in 1881 he was working as an apprentice chemist.

In the 2nd qtr of 1890, at Cheshire Harry married Catherine Ann Dunn and with her had several children including a son Alfred Samuel Wooleston Pearmund (1891-1975) who was born in Herefordshire.

At the time of the 1891 census, taken at 7 Eign Street, Herefordshire, Harry was a pharmaceutical chemist employing others. With him was his wife Catherine, his son Alfred; his widowed mother Emma, a nurse and one general servant. He was still at that address in 1895.

By 1898 Harry and his family took up residence in Tunbridge Wells and under the name ‘Kent Drug Stores’ operated a chemists shop at 48 High Street from 1898-1915 and a second chemists shop at  17 Calverley Road from 1900 -1915. His private residence was at 28 Claremont Road

Harry had been admitted to the Freemasons (Holmesdale Lodge) October 19,1904 and was actively involved in local affairs.

By 1911 Harry was the principal of Sylva Photo Works of Tunbridge Wells. Several examples of their postcards can be found on the internet. It was announced in the Chemist and Druggist of January 25,1911 that Sylva Photo Works had purchased Falla-Gray Photo Paper Co and the Speediq Photographic Printing Works, both of Park Road, Tunbridge Wells. Some examples of Speediq postcards are included in this article.

At the time of the 1911 census Harry was living with his father Samuel and two of his sisters in Richmond, Surrey and given as a pharmaceutical chemist employer. Given as married in the census ,his wife and son Alfred were living at 28 Claremont Road, Tunbridge Wells  with a niece and one servant when the 1911 census was taken. His wife was also listed as married.

Harry’s obituary published in the Courier July 17,1913  was a very long one, describing in detail the events of his life and career and his well- attended funeral.  He had been a member of the Pharmaceutical  Society of Great Britain and was the President of the Tunbridge Wells Chemists Association, just to name two of his roles. Harry had died at ‘Happisburgh’ Claremont Road, Tunbridge Wells July 5,1913 and was buried in the Tunbridge Wells Borough Cemetery. His wife Catherine joined him there upon her death in at Torrington, London Road, Tunbridge Wells June 17,1934.

 Harry’s son Alfred became a well -known dentist, who for a time was at Guy’s Hospital in London. The Medical and Dental Students Register of February 1,1910 gave Alfred taking exams at a medical school in Scotland and that he had commenced practice at Guy’s Hospital, London in January 1910. Alfred served in WW 1 with a British Infantry regiment. He had enlisted in 1915  while living at 17 Calverley Road, Tunbridge Wells and spent the first 2 years in the reserves and at home. He saw service in France from 1917 up to 1919 when he was discharged.  In 1916, at Glamorgan Gwent, Monmouthshire he married Muriel Duckhouse and with here had children. In the 1930’s he was working as a dentist in Tunbridge Wells and living in 1930 at Lyndhurst, Yew Tree Road, Southborough.  A dentist’s register of 1940 gave Alfred as a dentist with premises at 83 Mount Pleasant Road,Tunbridge Wells. Directories of the early 1950’s list him living at The Cottage, Bayham Road, Tunbridge Wells. The Gazette of May 12,1975 announced that Alfred was of the ‘Dormers’ 12 Bayham Road, a retired dentist, when he died March 24,1975. He was cremated at the Kent & Sussex  Crematorium and was survived by his wife and children. Harry's grandson James Alfred Pearmund became a noted dental surgeon in Tunbridge Wells.

In this article I present information about the Pearmund family with a concentration on the time they lived and worked in Tunbridge Wells. The career of Harry Samuel Pearmund and his son Arthur are featured and a number of postcards and other images are presented relating to Harry’s activities as a chemist and a producer of postcards.


Harry Samuel Pearmund was born 1865 in Richmond, Surrey, one of eight children born to Samuel Pearmund, a painter/decorator/builder born 1835 in Richmond, Surrey and Emma Pearmund ,nee Dale, born 1835 in Richmond, Surrey. Samuel had married Emma Dale March 29,1857 at Saint Mary Magdelen Church in Richmond, Surrey (image opposite).

The 1861 census, taken at 21 St John Road in Richmond, Surrey gave Samuel as a painter/glazier. With him was his wife Emma and their one year old daughter Emma.

The 1871 census, taken at 5 Alma Villas in Richmond , Surrey gave Samuel Pearmund as born 1835 in Richmond and working as a house painter. With him was his wife Emma, born 1835 in Richmond. Also there were their chidren Emma, age 11; Harry,age 9; Elizabeth,age 4 and Edith, age 1. All of the children were born in Richmond, Surrey. Henry at that time along with some of his siblings were attending a local school.

The 1881 census, taken at 5 Rosemont Road, Alma Villas, Richmond, Surrey gave Samuel Pearmund as a painter and decorator. With him was his wife Emma; his son Harry who was working as an apprentice chemist; and their other children Elizabeth, age 14; Edith,age 11; Ada,age 9; George,age 5 and Eva ,age 2, all of whom were born in Richmond.

In the 2nd qtr of 1890 Harry married Catherine Ann Dunn at Cheshire. She had been born 1869 at Costol School, London. By the time of the 1911 census, Harry and his wife had two children, both born in Herefordshire. Some information  about their son Alfred Samuel Wooaston is given later in this article .

The 1891 census, taken at 7 Eign Street, Herefordshire (image opposite) , gave Harry as a pharmaceutical chemist employing others. With him was his wife Catherine; their son Alfred (born 1891 in Hertfordshire) and Harry’s mother Emma, age 57. Also there was one nurse, who may well have been attending to Harry’s mother, and one general servant.

By 1898 Harry and his family moved to Tunbridge Wells where he opened a chemists shop on the High Street.

The 1901 census, taken at 30 Friars Stile Road in Richmond gave Samuel as a retired builder. With him was his wife Emma and four of his two daughters. His daughters Edith,age 31, and Eva,age 22 were both elementary school teachers.

The 1911 census, taken at 30 Friars Stile Road gave Samuel as a parish clerk. With him was his married son Harry  who was a pharmaceutical chemist employer. Harry was given as married but at the time of this census his wife and children were living in Tunbridge Wells. Also there was Samuel’s daughters Edith (an elementary school teacher) and Ada, age 38.

Details about Samuel and his wife and children, other than their son Harry, were not investigated after the 1911 census but it is expected that both of them died in Richmond, Surrey in the 1920’s.

Harry was listed in a 1895 directory as a pharmaceutical chemist at 7 Eign Street, Herefordshire.


Local directories indicate that Harry and his family took up residence in Tunbridge Wells in 1898 and while living in the town Harry was the proprietor of a chemists shop on the High Street. Harry and his family were found at 48 High Street at the time of the 1901 census. Harry and his family lived above his chemists shop at that time.  Shown opposite is a photograph of High Street. High Street was one of the main commercial districts in the town and Harry no doubt did a good trade, good enough that he was able to expand his business in the town to two shops. Harry's shop was located on the west side of High Street south of the clock shown of Payne's Jewellers at No. 37 on the east side.

The book ‘Yesterdays Bottles’ by Tucker and Hetherington, published by the Kent & Sussex Bottle Club in 1981 gave the following listing (1) Kent Drug Store (H.S. Pearmund) 48 High Street circa 1898-1915 (2) Kent Drug Co. (H.S. Pearmund( 17 Calverley Road) circa 1901-1915.  Bottles bearing the name of “H. S. Pearmund Tunbridge Wells” have on occasion been listed for sale on ebay, selling for about 12 pounds and stated by the sellers to be “rare”. Shown opposite is one of his bottles.

A 1903 Kelly directory gave the listing “ Harry Samuel Pearmund, chemist, 48 High Street and 17 Calverley Road, Tunbridge Wells”. Shown opposite is a postcard view of Calverley Road. Harry’s shop was located where Topshop is located today on the north east corner of Calverley Street and Calverley Road.

Harry had been admitted to the Freemasons (Holmesdale Lodge) October 19,1904 and was actively involved in local affairs. He was listed in the records of the Freemasons as a pharmaceutical chemist.

The Kent & Sussex Courier of March 30,1906 advertised for sale Pearmund’s Cherry Prune Tonic, available from Harry’s chemists shop. He sold a wide variety of similar items at his shop. Bottles and other containers with his name on them come up for auction on rare occasions.

The Kent & Sussex Courier of September 15,1909 recorded “ H.S. Pearmund (pharmaceutical chemist) a member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Apothecaries Hall, qualification”. Advertisments for his business appeared in The Chemist and Druggist under the listing “ Mr. H. S. Pearmund, pharmaceutical chemist, Calverley Road, Tunbridge Wells”.  Harry was also for a time the President of the Tunbridge Wells Chemists Association.

On February 23,1910 Harry departed from Liverpool on the ship TARQAH of the African Steamship Line headed on his own for Grand Canary, Spain.

The Chemist and Druggist of January 25,1911 recorded “We mentioned recently that the Sylva Photo Works of Tunbridge Wells, of which Mr H.S. Pearmund PhC is principal, had purchased Falla-Gray Photo Paper Co and the Speediq Photographic Printing Work of Park Road, Tunbridge Wells. Mr Pearmund now sends us specimens of the picture postcards which the works produces. The P.O.P. first being made, then the cards printed, toned and fixed by them. They have in immense stock of negatives, comprising the finest bits of scenery and historic buildings in the British Isles, pagents, and people. Chemists should see them and it is worth noting that Mr. Pearmund supplies the sensitised cards and also undertakes to do special printing of cards”.

Shown below is a selection of Speediq postcards, on the back of which is printed “Speediq Photographic Works, Tunbridge Wells”.  Although most of the cards found show images pertaining to Southborough and Tunbridge Wells, some show scenes much further afield, including one found dated 1910 for Cardiff.


Sometime before 1911 Harry and his family moved to their private residence at 28 Claremont Road, Tunbridge Wells. Harry is found at that address with his wife and son Alfred (a medical student) at the time of the 1911 census, a census which records that they had been married 20 years and that their two children were still living. Also there was Harry’s niece ( the daughter of his daughter) and one domestic servant. Harry was still listed at 28 Claremont Road in a 1913 directory.

Harry Samuel Pearmund was of Happisburgh, Claremont Road, Tunbridge Wells when he died July 5,1913. A view of Claremont Road is shown opposite. The executor of his 5,622 pound estate was his father Samuel Pearmund of no occupation. Harry was buried in the Tunbridge Wells Borough Cemetery July 9th. The obituary for Harry appeared in the Courier July 17,1913 but due to a poor quality print of it and its extreme length its contents are not given here. An article about his funeral was also published in the Courier and noted that it was a large funeral with many in attendance and that large numbers of wreaths were laid. His wife Catherine was of Torrington, London Road, Tunbridge Wells, when she died June 17,1934. The executors of her 13,219 pound estate were James Frederick Junes, bank cashier, and her son Alfred, a dentist. She was buried in the Tunbridge Wells Borough Cemetery June 20th.

Although Harry passed away in 1913 his name continued to be used by the person who took over his business, as noted in a 1918 and 1922 directory that gave the listing “ Harry Samuel Pearmund, chemist, 17 Calverley Road”.


Alfred was the only son of Harry Samuel Pearmund. His birth was registered in the 1st qtr of 1891 at Herefordshire.

Alfred was living with his parents at 7 Eign Street, Herefordshire at the time of the 1891 census and came to Tunbridge Wells with them and initially lived above his fathers chemist’s shop at 48 High Street. Later the family too up a 9 room private residence at 28 Claremont Road, Tunbridge Wells.

The 1911 census, taken at 28 Claremont Road gave Alfred living with his mother Catherine, a cousin and one servant. At that time Alfred was given in the census as a medical student.

Alfred became a well -known dentist, who for a time was at Guy’s Hospital in London (Image opposite). The Medical and Dental Students Register of February 1,1910 gave Alfred taking exams at a medical school in Scotland and that he had commenced practice at Guy’s Hospital, London in January 1910.

Alfred served in WW 1 with a British Infantry regiment. He had enlisted December 12, 1915 in London. His attestation papers gave his address 17 Calverley Road, Tunbridge Wells  and his mother was given as his next of kin. His occupation was given as “Dental”. He was assigned service number 766702 with a British Infantry regiment. His service record shows he served a total of 3 years 173 days, much of which was spent in England at home or in the reserves. He served in France from October 13,1917 until discharged June 2,1919.

In the 1st qtr of 1916, at Glamorgan Gwent, Monmouthshire he married Muriel Duckhouse and with here had children.

In the 1930’s he was working as a dentist in Tunbridge Wells and living in 1930 at Lyndhurst, Yew Tree Road, Southborough Image opposite) A dentist’s register of 1940 gave Alfred as a dentist with premises at 83 Mount Pleasant Road,Tunbridge Wells. Directories of the early 1950’s listed him living at The Cottage, Bayham Road, Tunbridge Wells. No. 83 Mount Pleasant was located in the Opera House complex, a view of which is given below left. Shown below right is an old photo of Bayham Road.


The Gazette of May 12,1975 announced that Alfred was of the ‘Dormers’ 12 Bayham Road, a retired dentist, when he died March 24,1975.  One of his executors was James Alfred Pearmund, his son. Alfred was cremated at the Kent & Sussex  Crematorium and was survived by his wife and children.

Richard Cobb, in his book Still Life, set in the 1940’s during Richards childhood in Tunbridge Wells gave “ one of my contemporaries at Rose Hill School was Pearmund, later a dentist. This appears to be a reference to Alfred’s son James who’s obituary is given below.

“James Alfred Pearmund died peacefully in his sleep on 17th January 2015, aged 98 years. A much respected dental surgeon in Tunbridge Wells for 40 years. Dearly loved husband of the late Theodora, father of Anne and Rosemary, father-in-law of Robert and Adrian, grandfather and great-grandfather of John, Elaine, Ruth and Charlotte. Funeral Service to be held at the Kent and Sussex Crematorium Tunbridge Wells, on Monday 9th February 2015 at 3.15 p.m. Family flowers. Donations, if desired, to British Heart Foundation c/o E.R. Hickmott and Son, 41 Grove Hill Road, Tunbridge Wells”. The Kent & Sussex Courier of November 14, 1947 reported that “James Alfred Pearmund, son of Mr. & Mrs. Alfred Pearmund of 10 Royal Chase, Tunbridge Wells, married Theodora Robinson of The Ridge, Forest Way, Tunbridge Wells at St Paul’s Rusthall Church (image above). She was given away by her godfather Mr. F. Hutchin”. It was noted from the London Gazette that James served in WWII (service No. 152273) with the Army Dental Corps.



Written By: Edward James Gilbert-Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

Date: May 15,2016


For millions of people around the world, no family is complete without a cat or a dog. In my case I am a cat lover, and since the age of 4  I have always had a cat.

We lavish fortunes on our beloved pets, as well as our affections, so it’s only understandable that we’d want to photograph them too. Before the use of cameras by the general population became possible, or common, allowing us to take our own photos,  those who could afford it took their pets to a local photographic studio for a professional memento of our furry or feathered friends. Although cats and dogs predominate the images found, it’s surprising to find an assortment of other creatures too. Although most photographic studios only did photos on their premises, some left the studio to take photos in the field of the owner’s prize horse or other farm animals, like the CDV shown opposite dated 1890 of a man and his horse taken at the annual Tunbridge Wells Agricultural Fair.

Pet photography is challenging and not all photographers worked in this specialty field. Adults are easy to photograph as they do as they are told, less so for children, and virtually impossible when it comes to getting an animal to pose long enough to capture a good image of it on film. This was particularly true in the early history of photography when the act of taking a photo on glass plates with a tripod camera and a flash was a slow process. It was not click and your done back then.

Dogs may come when you call, and cats may mysteriously appear at the sound of a can opener, but point a camera at them and they suddenly develop a mind of their own. I have made many attempts to capture a cute moment of my cat on film but with limited success. By the time I get my camera out the cat has moved and the moment has been lost.  One photo I am particularly fond of is the one shown opposite of my cat Patches, taken when it appears she is in deep thought.

An animals typical reaction is to come right up to the camera and either rub up against it (if they’re a cat) or stick their slobbery wet nose on the front of the lens (if they’re a dog).Throw into the mix the challenge of focusing and exposure, and we have a cocktail of complexity that makes getting a great pet photography shot a real challenge. You need to work quickly when photographing pets. Even if they’re dozing, a cute expression can disappear in an instant.

Although most pet photos found their way into family photo albums some , like those by Photochrom of Tunbridge Wells , a postcard company, were turned into amusing postcards and greeting cards. Since the first time pets were captured in photographs we humans have exploited their cuteness by dressing them up in outlandish costumes and some photographers like Harry Whittier Frees of the USA made a career out of it. An example of one if his images is shown opposite. Another of his photos is shown at the top of this article.


Tunbridge Wells was blessed by many very competent photographers over the years, dating back to the 19th century, when photography was in its infancy, but examples of pet photographs by them are small in comparison to their typical work with people. Their studios could be found scattered about the town most notably in the main commercial districts on Grosvenor Road, Mount Pleasant Road, Mount Ephraim,the High Street and The Pantiles. Some examples of local photographers who included pet photography in their work are given below.

[1] GEORGE GRANVILLE…………..Of all the towns photographers the greatest number of pet photographs found are those of George Granville. A detailed account of the man and his career was presented in my article ‘Granville, Skinner & Wyles-Photographers’ dated March 21,2012. He made a point of noting in his business advertisments " Pet Photography a specialty" and for that reason more examples of his pet photographs can be found than for any other photographer in the town.

George Granville (1846-1925) was born in Sutton,Surrey and died in Tunbridge Wells. His father John William Granville had a photographic business and during George’s early years he learned the skill of being a photographer and moved to Tunbridge Wells as a single young man by 1855 and established his studio at No. 1 The Broadway on Mount Pleasant Road and was still there in 1874. In 1878 he married Ellen Mary Josolyne and started a family.

The business was doing well and sometime in the 1880's George expanded his operation. A studio card shown above describes him as a "photographic artist at #5 High Street and at #1 Broadway.He advertised that he has "special facilities for outdoor photography" and takes photographs of children and groups.He was also selling "local and other views" which indicates he was selling real photo postcards. He also states on his studio card that he will arrange to have any photographs turned into oil and watercolour paintings "by artists of eminence only". He proudly displayed at the top of his studio card "By appointment to H.R.H. Princes Louise and The Marque of Lorne". By 1891 his studio was given as No. 2 The Broadway. By 1893 George took on a partner in the business and a directory for that year lists the company as Glanville & Skinner at 2 The Broadway and Mount Pleasant Road.The Skinner referred to was Edwin Mark Skinner.A 1899 directory listing records George Glanville as an artist and photographer at 2 The Broadway as Glanville & Skinner.

In the 1901 census taken at 48 Grove Hill Road is found George Glanville,age 55,listed as a "pet photographer(retired)".A 1903 Kelly directory shows that George Glanville had sold his "Broadway Studio" to Frank Beaumont Wyles,who have moved from Chatham to Tunbridge Wells at the turn of the century to operate a portrait studioThere is also a 1903 Kelly directory of Glanville & Skinner at 32 High Street..Directories during the period of 1913 to 1918 record George Glanville at 76 Grove Hill Road. Directories of 1913 to 1922 also give a listing for Edwin Mark Skinner at 47 Goods Station Road, indicating that the partnership between Glanville and Skinner had ended by 1913.

There are a number of fine examples of his photographic works which show that his clients were quite diverse in social stature. They include anything from the common man on the street to people of superior social status. There are two fine examples of Glanvilles photographs in the National Portrait Gallery of Sir Leslie Stephen done as albumen carte-de-viste in the 1870's as well as one of Stratford Canning-Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe and one of Charles Richard Alford.There are also many examples to be found of group photos,photos of children and pets.

George Glanville passed away in Tunbridge Wells on April 9, 1925 and was buried in the Tunbridge Wells cemetery on April 12th. Probate records show George "of Ashley House,Grove Hill Road" and that he left an estate valued at about 15,000 pounds. His executors were Walter Josolyne Glanville,a major in H.M's Army and Charles Henry Bertram Draper,manager.George's wife passed away before him and the Walter referred to in the probate records was his son Walter J ,born in Tunbridge Wells in 1881.

[2] HARRY FRANCIS GOODDEN……. Details about the man and his career were given in my article ‘The Photographic Career of H.F. Goodden’ dated May 5,2014.

Francis was born in 1856, the son of a bookbinder. He was from a large family and spent his early life in Oxford. He was sent off to a boys boarding school in Chiswick in the early 1870’s and in 1877 married Emma Margaret Gould and with her had five daughters and three sons, the most famous of whom was Major Frank Widenham Goodden (1889-1917) who became an aeronaut just before WW I and became a designer of aircraft and a test pilot with the Royal Flying Corps. He was killed while testing a new aeroplane and was buried at the Aldershot Military Cemetery.

Harry Francis Gooden had what I would term an unusual life for although he became a photographer, he moved about frequently operating a photo studio from his home and at other times from a shop. His career was unusual in that his production of photographs and postcard views was by all accounts very small and very few examples of his work can be found. His skills as a photographer , from what I have seen of his work, is best described as “average” and the general view is that he did not take photography that seriously and seemed to be a man of independent means, although when he died in 1938 he left an estate valued at just 584 pounds.

After his marriage in 1877 he moved to Wales and worked on his own account as a photographer. By 1901 he and his family moved to Ireland where he described himself as a retired gentleman farmer. By 1903 he took up residence in Tunbridge Wells where he once again was a photographer. He left Tunbridge Wells sometime after 1908 but before 1911, and moved to Worthing, Sussex , where he had a photo studio. By 1918 he was on the move again, this time taking a residence in Eastbourne,Sussex. The pet photo shown in this section was one he took when his studio was in Pembroke.

Harry died in 1938 at the Dorset Mental Hospital at the age of 82 having been admitted by his children who were unable to care for him in his condition. His wife had passed away in 1918.

[3] LUCK & HATT………. From the overview of my article ‘Luck & Hatt-Photographers’ dated August 27,2013 is the following.

In 1876 Frederick Lindon Hatt(1844-1919) and Walter Luck (1854-1927) entered into a partnership and established a photographic studio in Tunbridge Wells .The two photographers operated from a single studio at #1 Mount Sion from 1876 until about 1882, but then opened a second studio at 18 Parade. In 1882 Walter and Frederick were operating from two studios, one photographer being at the #1 Mount Sion premises and the other at #18 Parade. The 1882 Kelly directory records the partners with studios at the above two addresses and also records Walter Luck at 1 Princess Street. It is interesting to note, from the backs of the studio cards of Tunbridge Wells that the business is always shown as being established in 1860 although it is known that the partnership was not formed until 1876 and most of the card backs refer to them as “a school of photography”, implying that in addition to being portrait photographers , they also taught lessons in photography. Luck & Hatt had taken over the photographic studio of George Henry Lawrence who established his studio at #1 Mount Sion in 1860, thus Luck & Hatt’s reference to the business being established in 1860. Lawrence also referred to his business as The Tunbridge Wells School of Photography. In 1874 there were only six photographic studios listed in the Kelly directory in Tunbridge Wells.

By the end of 1882 the partnership ended and Frederick left Tunbridge Wells and moved to Bristol where he set up his own portrait studio at the Triangle in Clifton, a studio he ran for over fifteen years.

Walter was still working as a photographer in Tunbridge Wells in 1891 but not long afterwards  he left Tunbridge Wells,moved to Hastings Sussex, and became an innkeeper, dying in Hastings in 1927

[4] ROBINSON & CHERRILL……….The overview from my article ‘The Photographic Career of Robinson and Cherrill’ dated September 1,2013 is given below.

In 1872 the Great Hall on Mount Pleasant Road was constructed. In addition to a central hall it had two wings. The south wing was taken initially by Isaac Terry of the Clarence Hotel as a restaurant and coffee room and later became the Claremont Hotel. The north wing was initially taken by H.P. Robinson and N.K. Cherrill as their photographic studio and they erected additional glass houses round the side of the building to carry on their business.  The two men had operated on their own initially but formed a partnership. They operated initially from 1868 to 1871 from a studio at #1 Grove Villa but moved to the Great hall in 1872 and remained in partnership there throughout 1872 to 1875 until the partnership was dissolved by March1876 and the two gentlemen went their separate ways.  In 1874 Cherrill also had a studio at #1 Fern Villas on Queens Road .In May 1876 Cherrill left England and established a photographic business in New Zealand. In 1881 Cherrill returned to England, having disposed of his studio in New Zealand. Henry Peach Robinson had actually retired from photography in 1865 due to an illness brought on by his exposure to photographic chemicals but by 1868 came out of retirement to be the senior partner with Cherrill. After Cherrill left , Henry Peach Robinson continued to have his studio at the Great Hall until he decided to retire in 1888 and his son took over the studio for a brief period. The 1882 Kelly records Robinson living at 15 Mount Sion. Robinson left Tunbridge Wells in 1901 and moved to London.The photographic studio at the Great Hall, after Robinson’s departure, became that of local photographer Percy Squire Lankester(1866-1930) who operated initially as Lankester & Warren and later as Lankester & Co. and who remained at the Great Hall until relocating to new premises in the early 1920’s. Lankester is listed in the 1899 Kelly directory as being at the Great hall studio.

The Robinson/Cherrill partnership was not only successful in terms of the praise,and medals,lavished on their art-productions,but also financially rewarding. In 1872 they announced their occupation of a brand new studio,"of very magnificent proportions".Their studio was proclaimed "one of the finest establishments of its kind in the country", this studio being the one at the Great Hall.

[5] T.H. LARMUTH………..Details about the man and his career is given in the overview below from my article ‘T.H. Larmuth-A Tunbridge Wells Businessman’ dated April 19,2014.

Thomas Larmuth (1832-1915) was a man with an interesting career. Born in Finsbury,Middlesex, into a large farming family,  he decided to leave the field of agriculture. By 1851 he was working in London as a merchants clerk . In 1851 Thomas decided to move to Tunbridge Wells and went into partnership with George Hamaton, a young man who had taken up the profession of a printer. The two men, operating as Larmuth and Hamaton established a booksellers ,printers and stationers business on the High Street  but the business was not a success. In 1860 the partnership was dissolved and Thomas Larmuth ended up filing for bankruptcy soon after. However like the phoenix that rose from the ashes Thomas was able to rise from the flames of financial ruin and start anew. In 1862 he re-established his shop on the High Street right across the road from Christ’s Church  advertising himself as a book and book and music seller, printer, bookbinder, news and advertising agent,publisher ,photographer ,and dealer in photographic materials. The back of his CDV’s while at the High Street state refer to the business being established in 1851. He even expanded this operation by using part of his premises as a photographic studio . He did a good trade and was successful. In 1864 Walter John Spiers (1832-1889), a printer from London, came to Tunbridge Wells and a notice was published in September 1865 that Mr Larmuth’s business on the High Street (No. 8) had been sold to Walter John Spiers. Mr Larmuth relocated to new premises where he expanded  the range of products and services he offered his customers and was still in business at that location in 1874. In the 1870’s Thomas became the proprietor of the Victoria Works, on High Street, a business that bottled mineral water.

By 1880 Thomas had moved to London  and abandoned his previous career and went into the bottled non-alcoholic beverage business . Examples of his bottles, dug up by bottle collectors have become popular with collectors. While in this business he became an inventor and is credited with three patents in the period of 1877 to 1880 pertaining to the manufacture of beverages and ran his business under the name of Larmuth & Co. Limited with premises on St Smithin’s Lane, London.  In 1883 a winding up order was issued for the business and it appears that Thomas  went into semi –retirement. His first wife Martha was 15 years older than he but they had a daughter (Harriett) together ,who was born in Tunbridge Wells in 1856.  After losing his first wife he married Maria Garland in 1895 in London. The couple remained in London and by 1911 Thomas was a fruit syrup maker. Thomas died in Clapton, London in 1915 and was survived by his wife Maria.

[6] C.F. WING………. Details about the life and career of Charles Frederick Wing are given in my article ‘The Photographic Career of C.F. Wing’ dated August 29,2013. A summary is given below.

Charles Frederick Wing was born March 31,1852 in London and was one of seven children born to Adolphis Henry Augutine Wing(1824-1906) and Happy Wing, nee Goodchild(1824-1867).His father was an artist specialized as a portrait and miniature painter but also became studio photographer.

Charles interest in photography began at an early age, at a time when the portrait painting work his father was doing was being replaced in large measure by photographic images and since he was from a family with an artistic background it is understandable how Charles would cultivate an interest in this line of work. By the end of the 1860’s Charles left the family home to persue his love of photography. By 1871 he was working as a photographic artist in London

On May 30,1874 Charles wed Mary Jane Thomas(1852-1929) at Camden,Middlesex in the St Martin Kentish Town parish church. Six years after the marriage the couple moved to Tunbridge Wells.

Charles appears to have confined his photographic works to that of the portrait studio as no examples of images outside of the studio were found by the researcher but there are records of him exhibiting with the Royal Photographic Society.Although most of his work, as was the case with most photographers, was taking images of people he seemed to attract a clientele with an interest in having photographs of their pets.

The 1881 census taken at 32 St Johns Road, Tunbridge Wells gave Charles as a photographer. This address was most likely that of his studio and he and his wife no doubt lived above it. From the dates and places of birth of the children it can be established that the Wing family took up residence in Tunbridge Wells in 1880.

The records of the Royal Photographic society 1870-1915 give two listings for Charles F. Wing of Tunbridge Wells, namely 1882 and 1883.The 1882 exhibition was held October 4 to November 16 at 5A Pall Mall and at that exhibiton Charles entered one photo, which appears in the catalogue as #206 entitled “Portrait Studios”. At the 1883 exhibution he entered one photograph listed in the catalogue as #303 entitled “Group of two ladies”.

The 1882 Kelly directory gave two listings for Charles F. Wing.The first was for 32 St John’s Road and the second was for 31 Grosvenor Road. Shown opposite is the front and back of a carte de visite by Charles F. Wing. The back of this image shows his studio went by the name of “The Grosvenor Fine Art & Photographic Galleries”. In 1874 32 St John’s Road was the photographic studio of James Dyster Salmon, who’s studio C.F. Wing took over.

By 1886 C.F. Wing had closed his studio in Tunbridge Wells and moved to Hampstead,London where he worked as a photographer and was still working as photographer in London by the time of the 1911 census.

Charles wife Mary died in London in 1929 and he died in the first quarter of 1938 at Willesden,Middlesex.

[7] HENRY CONSTANTINE JENNINGS…………Details about this man and his career are given in my article ‘The Photographic Career of Henry Constantine Jennings’ dated March 1,2016. The overview from that article is given below.

Henry Constantine Jennings was born 1843 in Paris France, one of four known children born to Henry Constantine Jennings senior,a physician and practical chemist.  born 1791 in Liverpool, Lancashire, and Mary Jennings, born 1813 in France. The family moved from France to England sometime after 1843 but before 1848 and initially settled in Southwark, Surrey.

By the time of the 1861 census in Camberwell, Surrey Henry junior was working as a photographic artist and living with his parents and siblings.

In 1871 he married Elizabeth Barry of Leeds at Oxford Place Chapel. In 1881 he moved to Hastings, Sussex and took over the photographic studio of John Wesley Thomas at 52 Robertson Street, a site which had a long history of being a photographic studio and which from 1874 to 1876 had been the studio of Tunbridge Wells born photographer Robert Bell Hutchinson. Henry remained at this location until the end of 1886, when in that year he moved to Tunbridge Wells and took over the studio of C.F. Wing, at the Grosvenor Art Gallery.

Henry did not remain long in Tunbridge Wells and examples of his work in the town are scarce. Tunbridge Wells was a very competitive market for there were a number of excellent photographers in the town, and perhaps it was for that reason that Henry left Tunbridge Wells by the time of the 1891 census, when in that year he had already established himself with a studio in Chester, Cheshire at 36 Bridge Road. By 1901 he was on the move again and census records for that year record him in the town of Penarth, in Glamorgan Wales, never to be seen again back in England. Although he took photographs of people from all walks of life and of all ages he made a particular point of advertising his specialty of photographing children, something which no doubt took a great deal of patience, and a special skill.

[8] HARRY GORDON CHASE……….. Details about the man and his career are given in my article ‘The Photographic Career of Harry Gordon Chase’ dated February 27,2016.

Harry, who also went by the names Harry Chase, Gordon Chase and Harry Gordon Chase was born 1869 in Southsea, Hampshire, one of three children born to plumber/decorator Henry Chase and Jessie Chase, nee Fleming. Harry lived with his parents and siblings up to the 1880’s before striking off on his own, having decided to take up a career as a photographer.

At the time of the 1891 census he was working in Hampshire for the artist and photographer Thomas Roberts. On March 23,1896 Harry married Annie Emma Parsons at St Saviour, Southwark,Surrey. Annie had been born 1869 in Plumstead and was the daughter of Thomas Parsons, a civil servant clerk. Harry and his wife had three children but the youngest one died in infancy.

By the time of the 1901 census Harry and his wife and two children were living at 6 North Grove Buildings in Portsmouth,where Harry had a photographic studio. By 1903 he had a studio at Elm Grove in Portsmouth. In the early 1900’s Harry and his family moved to Tunbridge Wells where he established a photographic studio. He did not remain in the town long, for examples of his photographs while in Tunbridge Wells are very scarce.

By the time of the 1911 census Harry had left Tunbridge Wells and established a studio at 1 Prince Avenue in Muswell Hill, Middlesex. By 1913 he had left Mustwell Hill and took over the Lavender Studios in Bromley Kent at 53 Windmore Road.

Probate records show that he died July 21,1924 at the Phillips Memorial Hospital in Bromley and that his private residence at that time was  96 Tweedy Road in Bromley. His wife Annie was the executor of his 8,829 pound estate.

The British Journal of Photography Almanac of 1925 noted the death of Gordon Chase on July 21,1924 and stated “MR. GORDON CHASE ….One of the younger generations of well-known portrait photographers, Mr. Chase had carried on his profession in several places in Southsea, Tunbridge Wells, Muswell Hill and Bromley, where a few years ago he took over the old-established business of Messrs. Lavender. For many years he had been an active member of the Council of the Professional Photographers’ Association and in 1915-16 was the President. Mr. Chase was himself a talented painter of miniatures on ivory and also a colourist of exceptional ways and means in photography; he was one of the early users and advocates of tank development, and was also a pioneer in the use of a reflex type camera in studio portraiture. His death took place at the age of 55, following an operation for appendicitis.

[9] HARRY KING……….Details about the man and his career are given in my article ‘Harry King-A Tunbridge Wells Photographer’ datged November 3,2015, an overview of which is given below.

Harry King operated his photographic business from his private residence in Tunbridge Wells from the mid 1880’s until at least the 1920’s. Examples of Harry’s photographic work are very scarce due in part to the fact that unlike many professional photographers in the town he did not have a studio in  one of the main commercial districts. As a result nothing has been written to date about him and his family and his work as a photographer.

Harry was born 1854 in Headcorn,Kent. In 1861 he was living with his widowed mother and siblings in Staplehurst. By 1871 at Staplehurst Harry was working as a labourer in a grocers warehouse.

On February 14,1881 Harry wed Mary Horton and after the marriage Harry and his wife took up residence in Tunbridge Wells at 13 Park Road where Harry worked as a grocers assistant.

Sometime, under unknown circumstances, between 1881 and 1891 Harry decided to change his line of work and began to refer to himself as a photographer, a profession he continued until at least the 1920’s .

The 1891 census, taken at 101 Queens Road gave Harry as a photographer on own account. Living with him was his wife and four children.

With him was his wife Mary and their children  (1) Clive, born 1882 (2) Ellick, born 1883 (3) Eward, born 1886 (4) Edith M,born 1888). All of the children were  born in Tunbridge Wells and the three eldest ones were attending school. In  1896 a son Malcolm King was born, the last child .By 1901 Harry had taken up residence at 27 Stephens Road where he worked as a photographer on own account.

As was the case with Harry’s previous address on Queens Road, he used his home on Stephens Road as his place of business, no doubt turning one of the rooms into a small studio.

Shown at the top of this article is the only example found of a photograph taken by him. It’s an interesting view of a family and their dog taken in Tunbridge Wells in the 1890’s outside the door of their brick home. On the back of this image is a plain stamp in blue ink giving “Harry King,photographer, (then a blank space in which was handwritten in black ink “Stephens Road”), followed in blue stamp ink with “studio, Tunbridge Wells”. Obviously the stamp was designed this way so that Harry could write in the current location of his studio without having to change his stamp each time he changed addresses. Harry was still working as a photographer at 27 Stevens Road at the time of the 1911 census.

A review of local directories gave for 1899 “Harry King, photographer, 101 Queens Road, and the directories of 1913, 1918 and 1922 gave “Harry King, photographer, 27 Stephens Road. No trade directory for Harry was found for 1930.

A review of death and burial records showed that Harry had passed away in Tunbridge Wells, in February 1932 and that he was buried in the Tunbridge Wells Borough Cemetery on February 20,1932. His wife Mary had died in Tunbridge Wells in February 1927 and was buried in the same cemetery as her husband on March 2,1927. No probate record for Harry King was found.

[10] GEORGE PICKETT………….George Pickett (1826-1896) is best known as a photographer in the town of Tonbridge, but the pet photo shown opposite indicates he had a branch studio in Tunbridge Wells at 4 Thuza Villas on Camden Road.

George had been born in Horsham,Sussex and was still living there at the time of the 1871 census. Census records and directories show him living in Tonbridge by 1880 with a photographic studio at 80 High Street.

George had been married twice, first to Mary Ann Weeks Vincent with whom he had four children between 1851 and 1857 in Horsham. From his second marriage to Frances Towse (1838-1911) he had nine children between 1860 and 1874 in Horsham. Among the children from his second marriage were the sons Albert Robert Pickett (1861-1946) and Edwin George Pickett born 1876, both of whom became photographers. Edwin is found in Tonbridge Directories as his father’s former studio at 80 High Street up to at least 1934.

The website of ‘Tonbridge Photographers’ refers to George Pickett taking over the studio of George Garrett about 1882 and that he was noted for his portraits; that he was a carver and gilder by trade, who specialized in making picture frames. His studio at 80 High Street became known as the Alma Studio from 1892. The pet photo shown above was the only7 image by G. Pickett found while operating his studio in Tunbridge Wells.


Written By: Edward James Gilbert-Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

Date: July 9,2018

The Oddfellows, or Odd Fellows, is an international fraternity consisting of lodges, which was first documented in London in 1730. In 1810, the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity was formed in Britain and since its formation branches of the Oddfellows has spread worldwide. Today it is one of the largest and oldest friendly societies in the UK with over 314,000 members across 126 branches nationwide. The current head office for the Oddfellows is at Oddfellows House 184-186 Deansgate, Manchester.

In 1876 the Tunbridge Wells District of the Oddfellows had nine lodges with 1,002 members. The nine lodges were as follows

(1) Battle Sussex

(2)  Frant near Tunbridge Wells named the St Albans Branch who held their meetings at the George Inn every Wednesday with Harry Bond in charge. The branch derived its name from St Albans Church in Frant.

(3) Goudhurst

(4) Hawkhurst

(5) Southborough

(6) Speldhurst

(7) Tunbridge Wells Clarence Lodge who held their meetings at the Rose & Crown pub on Grosvenor Road every other Wednesday with John F. Horner of  24 Calverley Road in charge. Shown above is a photograph of the Rose & Crown.

(8) Tunbridge Wells Hand in Hand Lodge who held their meetings at the Coach and Horses pub in the Parade every other Tuesday with Thomas Burr of Eridge Road in charge.

(9) Tunbridge Wells St James Lodge who held their meetings at the Roebuck Inn on Camden Road every other Wednesday with Robert Roberts of 7 Garden Road in charge. Shown opposite  is a view of the pub.

Today the Oddfellows of Tunbridge Wells is a not-for-profit friendly society that relies on the good will of members and volunteers to deliver services with their head office located at the Constitutional Club at 1 Sandrock Road. Locally the Oddfellows held their meetings at various locations over the years but perhaps most notably at the Friendly Society Hall on Camden Road, the entrance to which is adorned by a pair of elephant heads. Shown below left is a photograph of the Constitutional Club and below right is a view of the Friendly Society Hall. Further information about the history of both buildings can be found in my articles ‘The History of the Friendly Society Hall’ dated August 10,2016 and ‘ Rocklands and the Bartram Brewery’ dated May 24,2014. Rocklands was the former name of the Constitutional Club.


A website dedicated to the history of brass bands provides photographs of various bands, including those of the Oddfellows. Although a photograph of the Tunbridge Wells Oddfellows band was not found, shown opposite is a photo of the Terrington St Clement Archangel Band of the Oddfellows. These bands performed in local parades and events and also performed in band competitions.

Many local residents, particularly business men, belonged to and or ran the  friendly societies. The Freemasons was one of these as was The Foresters, which my grandfather Francis Reginald Gilbert belonged to in the early 1900’s before immigrating to Canada in 1923. I still have his sash and jewel among his mementos. Members of the Oddfellows and other friendly societies made small payments into a general fund from which members received medical and death benefits before the time of the NHS.

The presence of the Oddfellows in Tunbridge Wells became so well known that a pub called the Oddfellows Arms was named after them. This pub was located at 43 Tunnel Road. Shown below are two photographs of it after it had been renamed the Viking House. The earliest known licensed victualler of it was W. A Couper in 1903 who was followed by James William Greenstreet who was there from 1911 to 1936. The pub derived its name the Oddfellows Arms after Mr Couper who was a member of the Oddfellows.

When the Oddfellows were established in Tunbridge Wells was not determined but references to it date back to the 1840’s. The Clarence Lodge was established in 1845; the Hand in Hand in 1862 and the St James branch in 1864.

The Oddfellows Magazine of 1862 (pg 255) gave a report on Tunbridge Wells regarding the anniversary of the Loyal Clarence Lodge, which took place Wednesday August 31. In part it stated “ In the morning a cricket match was played on the common between the married and single Members, when, after a smart contest, the Benedicts triumphed over the Romeos, and carried off their bats with a majority of twenty-three runs. At four o’clock the Members and their friends, to the number of about a hundred, assembled at the Corn Exchange, and partook of an excellent dinner.” The article continued with toasts and speeches and a summary of the lodges history and its present position. Mr Edward Barnard, the secretary and also the C.S. of the District stated “ the lodge was never in a better or more prosperous condition. It was founded in 1845, and consisted at the present time of 108 members, with a surplus capital of 1,700 pounds or nearly 9 pounds 10s per Member. During the evening there was some excellent singing”.

Shown opposite is the front of a 24 page booklet printed in 1869 by “Stidolph and BR Bellamy, Frant Road”. The reference to “BR Bellamy” denoted that he was a “brother” of the Oddfellows. Details about this company were given in my article ‘Stidolph & Bellamy Printers of Tunbridge Wells’ dated January 23, 2016. This company was later taken over by the local printing firm of Lewis Hepworth who had premises on Vale Road. My grandfather Francis and his brother Herbert both served a 7 year apprentiship with Hepworths.

Like all “secret societies” the Oddfellows had their own form of initiation ceremonies and at meetings and on special occasions would be decked out in all their regalia, such as that shown below left .They could be seen in local parades wearing their sashes, marching along behind their banner. Shown below right is a postcard view of a parade in Tunbridge Wells, in which the Oddfellows banner can be seen. This photograph was by local photographer and postcard printer/publisher Harold H. Camburn.


I close off this brief article with a report on Tunbridge Wells given in the Oddfellows Magazine of 1882. “ On the 7th of February the twelfth anniversary dinner of the Excelsior Lodge of Past Grands took place at the Friendly Societies Hall, Mr. T.E. Collins (the president) presided. The dinner was provided by the committee of the Working Men’s Club, where the lodge holds its meetings. The chairman stated that the lodge had been established twelve or thirteen years, that they met monthly to discuss various matters that were of interest. The secretary, Bro. P.C.N. Marsh, stated that the Excelsior Lodge was opened on the 11th January 1869. Bro T. Baker responded on behalf of the Clarence Lodge and stated that during the past year they had away 500 pounds for sickness and funerals, that they had saved about 160 pounds. P.P.G.M. Thos. Bun,secretary of the Hand-in-Hand lodge stated that 46 new members were admitted last year and since 1872 they had added to their funds about 2,700 pounds and had saved 190 pounds during the past year. Bro. T. Roberts on behalf of the St James Lodge stated their lodge was only a young one; their sickness had been very heavy but they had saved during the past year upwards of 100 pounds. P.D.G.M. John Jarvis ( a well-known local builder), secretary of the Hand and Sceptre lodge in Southborough gave an encouraging account of the lodges progress both financially and numerically. Due to inclement weather representatives of the other lodges were unable to attend the meeting but reports showed that they were increasing in membership and funds. The Vice Chairman proposed ‘Success to The Bud of Promise Juvenile Lodge of Oddfellows’ and stated that it had been established two years; the numbers were increasing, and also the funds, which showed that Oddfellowship would not die out in this town, as the juveniles as soon as they were old enough were drafted into the senior lodges”.  His  prophecy held true for today the Oddfellows continue to do good work in the community.







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