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Written By: Edward James Gilbert-Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

Date: October 23,2016


This article reports on the life and photographic career of Alaric Hawkins De’Ath (1853-1931). He was born in Maldon, Essex, the son of William De’Ath, a basket maker and one of eight known children in the family.
It should be pointed out that many errors are to be found regarding the spelling of his surname. His proper surname was "De'Ath" but some records give it variously as "De'Arth" and even "Death". The spelling of his surname throughout this article are based on the way his name was recorded in the referenced documents. His proper name is clearly given in birth records and on his photographic images as "De'Ath".

In 1877 he married Emily Prance in London and never had any children, instead devoting his life to his photographic career in the 1880’s and onwards. By 1899 his business enterprise was prospering, with photographic studios located in Ashford, where he resided, and Maidstone. From 1903 to 1907 he had a studio in Tunbridge Wells at 4 Mount Sion on the corner of Mount Sion and the High Street. In about 1908 he also opened a studio in Faversham, Kent but it appears to not have lasted long. His studios in Ashford and Maidstone were still in operation at the time of his death in Ashford 1931 but directories show that his studio in Maidstone continued in operation, by his former partner ,until 1938 under the name of De ‘Ath & Dunk'.

In Ashford he took on a partner by the name of Arthur James Condon (1874-1960) who had been born in Croydon,Surrey. While in business together they operated under the name of De’Ath & Condon from premises at 32 Bank Street. In Maidstone he took on a partner by the name of Joseph Cornelius Dunk (1869-1932), a photographer who had been born in Selling, Kent. While in business together they traded under the name of De’Arth & Dunk.

Examples of studio CDV.s , field photographs, and a large selection of postcard views can be easily found produced by him and his partners over the years. They were prolific photographers but did much more, an example of which is found in an advertisement in the Ashford directory of 1903 which stated “Alaric Hawkins De’Ath-photographer, dealer in photographic apparatus & materials, cameras, dry plates & papers at maker’s prices, printing developing etc for amateurs,artists materials, re-gilding & picture framing on the premises, mouldings supplied in lengths, agents for Ross & Co.’s celebrated lenses, fancy goods & photo frames in great variety…32 Bank Street Ashford and 46 Weeks Street, Maidstone and 4 Mount Sion, Tunbridge Wells”.

In a book by Irene Hales entitled ‘ Maidstone Through Time’ she refers to photographers who operated in Maidstone stating “ They show a way of life that is now hard to imagine. High praise indeed to the early photographers who were out and about with their plate cameras to capture views and events. Of these photographers whos’ work can be identified were the partners Young & Cooper and De’Ath & Dunk.” Although no postcard views of Tunbridge Wells by De’Arth have been found by the researcher many examples of De’Ath’s studio exist, such as the two CDV’s taken at the Tunbridge Wells studio shown above.


Alaric Hawkins De’Ath was born 1853 at Malden, Essex. His birth was registered at Malden in the 1st qtr of 1853 at Malden. A portrait of him as a young man is shown opposite.

The 1861 census, taken at Gate Street in Malden, Essex gave his father William De’Ath (1829-1875)as born in Sudbury, Suffolk and working as a basket maker. With him was his wife Sarah Ann De’Ath, nee White (1830-1910) who had been born in Malden, Essex. Alaric had five siblings (by 1861), all of whom were born in Malden between 1855 and 1861, and who were also living with their parents at the time of the 1861 census.Also living with the family was Susanna White,age 23, given as a sister-in-law with the occupation of servant.

The 1871 census, taken at Union Lane in Malden, Essex, gave Aleric as a commercial clerk. He and six of his siblings  (a son Thomas was added in 1870 and a daughter Alice in 1865) were living with their parents, where his father William was still a basket maker.

On January 27,1877 Alaric married Emily Prance at All Saints Poplar, Tower Hamlets, London. At the time of the marriage both Alaric and his wife were living in Poplar where Alaric was working as a commercial clerk. Emily had been born in 1851 at Braintree, Essex and was the daughter of John Prance, a farmer.

The 1881 census, taken at Malden, Essex gave Alaric as a commercial clerk. With him was just his wife Emily. Alaric and Emily never went on to have any children. The 1886 Essex directory gave Alaric and his wife living in Malden, Essex. The only evidence of his early photograph career is the 1891 census, taken at 343 West Rocky Road in West Derby, Lancashire, where Alaric was given as a photographic artist. Living with him was just his wife Emily. When exactly he and his wife moved to Lancashire was not established.

Although no 1901 census was located it is known from examples of his photographic work and a listing in the Ashford directory of 1899 that he had opened a studio in Ashford. Details of this are given later.

The 1911 census, taken at ‘Beeleigh’ in West Ashford, Kent, gave Alaric as “a photographer employer”. With him was just his wife Emily. This census recorded that they were living in premises of 10 rooms; that they had been married 34 years, and that they had no children.

Alaric and his wife lived the remainder of their lives in Ashford, Kent. Probate records gave Alaric Hawkins De’Ath of ‘Beeleigh’, Elwick Road, Ashford, Kent, when he died April 10,1931. The executors of his 13,200 pound estate were his widow Emily De’Ath and Herbert Lee, auctioneer. A photo of the cemetery he was buried in is shown above. A photo of his headstone was not available.  His wife Emily died in Ashford a few year later and was buried beside her husband.


From a review of local directories and related records a timeline was developed to clarify when his various photographic studios were in operation.

Alaric does not appear in commercial directories in West Derby Lancashire, where at the time of the 1891 he was working as a photographer artist. It can be concluded therefore that he was working as a photographer for another photographer at that time. However by 1899 he appears in directories of both Ashford and Maidstone, Kent as having studios there. While in Ashford he worked in partnership with Arthur James Condon (1874-1960) under the name of De’Ath & Condon. While in Maidstone he worked in partnership with Joseph Cornelius Dunk (1869-1932) under the name of ‘De’Ath & Dunk. Directory listings for the studio in Ashford shows it in operation from at least 1899 up to 1930, with his studio in Maidstone operating from 1899 to 1938, showing that after the death of Alaric in 1931 the business was carried on under the same name by his partner.

It is also known that in 1908 he had a studio in Faversham but appears to have not been there for long as a 1908 directory listing for it was the only one found.

His studio in Tunbridge Wells was also of short duration. It first appears at 4 Mount Sion in a 1903 Kelly directory and based on dated images taken at this studio, it ended in 1907/1908. At the time of the 1911 census, No. 4 Mount Sion was a laundry run by Benjamin Lengtane and his wife and daughter.

Mount Sion had been the scene of a number of photographic studios over the years. For example, George Henry Lawrence had a studio at 1 Mount Sion in 1874. His studio was taken over by Luck & Hatt, as described in my article ‘ Luck & Hatt Photographers’ dated August 27,2013, in 1876, who also had a studio at 18 Parade, until their partnership was dissolved in 1882, with Walter Luck going on his own with the studio at 1 Mount Sion. Henry Peach Robinson had a studio at 15 Mount Sion in 1882 but later moved his studio to the Great Hall on Mount Pleasant Road. In at least 1913 William Allan had a studio at 2 Mount Sion, having no doubt started his studio there after the studio of Alaric H. De’Arth closed at 4 Mount Sion. Shown above is a postcard view taken at the intersection of Mount Sion with the High Street, looking north up High Street. The De'ath studio would have been located just east of this intersection.

The photographic history of Mr De’Ath is somewhat difficult to establish due to the existence of undated CDV’s and other photos bearing his name only, as well as those with the name of his company while in partnership.

Given in the following sections is some information about each of his studios.


This was the third studio opened by Alaric. He had ,by 1899, established his first two studios at Maidstone and Ashford. The first indication of his studio in Tunbridge Wells is a 1903 Kelly directory giving “Alaric H. De’Arth, photographer, 4 Mount Sion”. Shown in the previous section is a postcard view of the intersection of Mount Sion and the High Street. No. 4 Mount Sion was located in one of the buidlings on the north east corner of the intersection. Later a bank building was constructed on the site and today, or at least until recently, this building was occupied by a pizza shop.

A 1899 detailed listing of Alaric in Ashford lists all of his studios, and at that time only Maidstone and Ashford are given. However, a 1903 directory of Ashford gave his studio premises as “ 32 Bank Street Ashford and at 46 Week Street,Maidstone and 4 Mount Sion Tunbridge Wells.

Shown above is postcard view of Marden Church and also Tenterden Church. The backs of these postcards list his studios including the one in Tunbridge Wells but it is not known from which studio these images originated. Interestingly, De Ath is recorded on the back of the cards as the publisher with no mention of him as “photographer”, which may suggest that others were hired to take the photographs and produce the postcards for him for resale.

Among all of his Tunbridge Wells related images is the one shown opposite of the Nugent sisters who operated a milliners shop on Silverdale Road in High Brooms. Details about them and their business can be found in my article ‘ The Nugent Sisters of Silverdale Road’ date October 30,2015.

It should be noted that Alaric never lived in Tunbridge Wells but obviously he visited the place before establishing his studio and no doubt came to the town from time to time to see how the business was going. Who the photographer was that ran the studio for him is not known and no partnership records of him with a photographer in the town were found, suggesting that the studio was run by a manager.

All records pertaining to this studio end in 1907/1908 based on the last known image bearing the name of Tunbridge Wells. The studio does not appear in the 1913 Kelly directory for Tunbridge Wells.

See the section about his studio in Ashford from the 1899 and 1903 directory for some idea of the types of products and services he offered at his studios, including the one in Tunbridge Wells.


This studio was in short operation. The only directory listing it was for 1908. The directories for D’Ath of 1903 and earlier do not list Faversham and no listings for it after 1908 were found, but it no doubt was in operation for a few years after 1908 but was definitely gone by 1913.

Shown above is a postcard view of Eastwell Church on the back of which as the publisher is marked A. H. De’Ath, Ashford, Maidstone and Faversham which suggests it dates to after 1907 since Tunbridge Wells is not listed. Also shown is a postcard dated 1908 of Brabourne Church which lists on the back the studios as Ashford,Maidstone and Faversham.


This studio was the first one opened by Alaric. As note in directories he had studio premises in two locations in Ashford, namely 32 Bank Street and 83 High Street. As can be seen from the images presented the photographs taken in Ashford they took the form of CDV’s done in the studio of people and animals; photographs taken in the field of events; and postcard views of Ashford and elsewhere.

The 1899 directory gave the following detailed advertisement ““Alaric Hawkins De’Ath-photographer, dealer in photographic apparatus & materials, cameras, dry plates & papers at maker’s prices, printing developing etc for amateurs,artists materials, re-gilding & picture framing on the premises, mouldings supplied in lengths, agents for Ross & Co.’s celebrated lenses, fancy goods & photo frames in great variety…32 Bank Street Ashford and 46 Weeks Street, Maidstone” The same advertisement appeared in a 1903 directory but added to the list of studios was “and 4 Mount Sion, Tunbridge Wells” and also a studio ‘at 83 High Street,Ashford. The studio at 83 High Street also appears in a 1902 directory. When exactly he opened the second studio in Ashford was not established but certainly after 1899 and before 1902. It is speculated that Mr De’Ath ran one studio (on the High Street) and his partner ran the studio at 32 Bank Street (Ref. 1911 census).

Initially the studio at 32 Bank Street operated under the name of “A. H. DeAth” but sometime after 1903 and before 1911 he took on a partner and from that time on, up to 1930 his studio operated under the name of ‘De’Ath & Condon.

His partner Mr Condon was Arthur James Condon, who was born 1874 in Croydon,Surrey. His birth was registered in Croydon in the 3rd qtr of 1874. He was the son of Lewis Condon (1834-1900), a tailor, born 1834 in Sherborne, Dorset, and Fanny Condon (1837-1923) born 1837 in Cranbrook, Kent. Arthur had only one sibling, a brother.

The 1881 census, taken at 12 Laud Street in Croydon gave Lewis Condon as a tailor. With him was his wife Fanny, their son Arthur and one lodger.

The 1891 census, taken at 7 Brafferton Road in Croydon gave Lewis Condon as a tailor. Living with him was his wife Fanny, their son Arthur who was a brush maker, and one lodger.

On August 3,1893 Arthur James Condon married Arabella Emma Cheney(1867-1952) at St Peter, Croydon. Arabella was born January 1867 at Puncknowle, Dorset and was one of eleven children born to John Cheney (1826-1882), a dairyman and Jane Cheney, nee Cox (1826-1889).  After the marriage the couple moved to Ashford, Kent.

At the time of the 1901 census Arthur and his wife and their daughter Maud Louise Condon (born 1896 in Ashford) were living in Ashford. His occupation was not given in the census record but must have been working for another photographer learning the trade.

Records indicate that sometime after 1903 and before 1911 Arthur went into partnership with Mr D’Arth at his studio at 32 Bank Street. The 1911 census, taken at 32 Bank Street gave Arthur James Condon as a “photographer employer at home”. With him was his wife Arabella and their daughter Maud. The census recorded that they were living in premises of 8 rooms; that they had been married 18 years and that they had only the one child.

Directory listings in Ashord gave “Arthur James Condon, photographer (see D’Ath & Condon)” for the years 1913 right up to and including 1934, indicating that he carried on the studio(s) after Mr D’Ath died in 1931.

Probate records for Arabella Emma Condon gave her of 4 Valley Road Chandlersford,Hampshire (the wife of Arthur James Condon) who died September 27,1952. Her husband, identified as a retired professional photographer,  was the executor of her 1,507 pound estate.

Probate records for Arthur James Condon gave him of 4 Vallet Road, Chandlersford, Hampshire when he died October 31,1960. The executor of his 881 pound estate was his married daughter Maud Louise Stones.

Shown in this section are some examples of CDV,s and postcards bearing the name of the Ashford studio(s).


The studio in Maidstone was located at 44 Week Street and appears to have been established about the time that the studio in Ashford opened. A postcard view of Week street is shown opposite.

As noted in the section above the Maidstone studio was listed in all directories from 1899 up to and including 1938. When Mr D’Ath died in 1931 the studio was continued by his partner Joseph Cornelius Dunk (1869-1932). This studio always operated  under the name of ‘De’Ath & Dunk.

Joseph Cornelius Dunk had been born 1869 in Elham, Essex. His birth was registered there in the 2nd qtr of 1869. He was one of at least seven children born to Joseph Dunk, born 1833 in Selling, Kent, a farmer, and Ellen Elizabeth Dunk, born 1837 at Standford,Kent.

The 1871 census, taken at “Sellinge Lane,Sellinge Kent” gave Joseph Dunk as a farmer of 93 acres employing 8 men and one boy. With him was his wife Ellen, four of their children including Joseph, and three servants.

The 1881 census, taken at 13 Alexandra Gardens in Folkestone, Kent gave Ellen E. Dunk as a widow with no occupation. With her were seven of her children including Joseph who was in school.

The 1891 census, taken at 225 Boxley Road in Maidstone gave Ellen as a widow. With her was her son William,age 25, a furniture salesman; her daughter Mary,age 23, an assistant draper; her son Joseph Cornelius, a photographer worker and her son Percy,age 16 a clerk to a builder. Also there was one grandson and one domestic servant.

In the 2nd qtr of 1897 Joseph married Emily Edith Griffin in Maidstone. The 1901 census, taken at 46 Week Street (the photographic studio), Maidstone, gave Joseph C. Dunk as a photographer. With him was his wife Emily who was born 1873 in Hanchsey, Oxfordshire and their daughter Dorothy E. Dunk, born 1900 in Maidstone.

The 1911 census, taken at 46 Week Street, Maidstone (the photographic studio) gave Joseph Cornelius Dunk as a “photographer employer at home”. With him was his wife Emily, their daughter Dorothy, a nephew and a niece and one domestic servant. The census recorded they were living in premises of 7 rooms; that they had been married 13 years and that they had just the one child.

Local directories for 1903 to 1922 gave “Joseph Cornelius Dunk, photographer, 46 Week Street (see D’Ath & Dunk)”. Directories of 1918-1922 gave “Joseph Cornelius Dunk, 28 Albion Place, Maidstone” which was his private residence. The 1930 directory gave him at 30 Albion Place, Maidstone.

Probate records gave Joseph Cornelius Dunk of 30 Albion Place, Maidstone, when he died June 6,1932. The executors of his 11,506 pound estate were Emily Edith Dunk, widow, Dorothy Everell Wigzell (wife of Howard Elphick Wigzell) and William Court, solicitor.

Shown above are some examples of images bearing the name of his studio in Maidstone, some of which may not have been taken from the Maidstone studio.



Written By; Edward James Gilbert-Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

Date: October 18,2016


Horse-drawn hackney carriages began providing taxicab service in the early 17th century in London and elsewhere. In 1636 the number of carriages used as taxis in London was set at 50, an early example of taxicab regulation. In the same year, the owner of four hackney carriages established the first taxicab stand in The Strand. After 1662 hackneys in London were regulated by the Commissioners of Scotland Yard. In the early 19th century cabriolets (cabs for short) replaced the heavier and more cumbersome hackney carriages. Battery-operated taxis appeared briefly at the end of the 19th century, but the modern taxicab service took off with the appearance of petrol-powered taxis in 1903. In London in 1903 there was only one motor taxi licence in the city but nearly 11,500 horse cabs. Ten years later there were more than 8,300 licensed motor cabs and fewer than 2,000 horse cabs. By the 1920’s horse cabs had almost disappeared from the streets of London.

In 1907, when the first boom in motor taxis took place in London,taxi meters were first introduced to calculate the fare and were set at 8d (8 pence) for the first mile. Today, taxicab service in London is provided by the famous purpose built black cabs noted for being able to turn on a sixpence; the high headroom and their large passenger and luggage carrying capabilities, something sadly lacking in most modern taxis in use today outside of London, as they are little more than standard passenger vehicle with a meter.

In the 1920’s and 1930’s new purpose built motor taxi designs appeared that were not just adapted passenger motor cars. Shown in this article are a number of photographs of taxi’s from different eras from the 1920’s up to today.

Today there are two types of taxis namely Hackney carriages (taxis) that can be flagged down in the street or hired from a taxi rank, and Private Hire Vehicles being passenger vehicles which can be either a 4-door saloon/hatchback, carrying up to four passengers or MPVs that are licensed to carry between 5 and 8 passengers. These may not be hailed in the street.

The taxi industry is heavily regulated regarding fares and licensing to ensure taxis are safe, comfortable, properly insured and available where and when required and drivers of them must meet stringent licensing requirements.

In many metropolitan areas throughout the UK, taxis are licensed by the local authority and in many places are required to be painted a certain colour. In the Tunbridge Wells Borough the industry is regulated by the Borough Council and all taxis are to be painted white. In 2012 the Council licensed 114 Operators, 107 hackney carriages and approximately 186 private hire vehicles. There are approximately 330 drivers licensed by the Council that are able to drive both vehicles.

In previous articles, in the ‘Motoring History’ category, I reported on the history of private and public transportation in Tunbridge Wells by horse drawn carriages as well as horse drawn and motorized omnibuses and carabancs. Other articles on the transportation theme reported on bicycles and motorcycles and the 1895 Horseless Carriage Exhibition held in Tunbridge Wells. This article reports on the general history of motorized taxis to set the stage for a more detailed account about the history of taxis and the taxi industry in Tunbridge Wells from the dawn of the motorized taxi in 1903 up to 2016, with an emphasis on the first half of the 20th century.


In Tunbridge Wells taxi’s in various forms have plied the streets of the town since the days of the horse and carriage. In my article entitled ‘The Fly Proprietor’ dated August 16,2011 I reported that until the introduction of the motorized taxi cab in the early 1900's the only modes of transportation for hire were the horse or the horse and carriage. To cater to this market the trade of fly proprietor came into being. A Fly,by definition,is a two wheeled light carriage (photo opposite)pulled by one horse and a fly proprietor is a person with sufficient funds to own and operate a business enterprise engaged in the hiring out of a carriage and horse with a driver.Many larger operators had a fleet of carriages and a number of drivers. In some cases these businesses also hired out 4 wheeled carriages(Growlers)  with horses to clients .Growlers carried more people and luggage but were slower then Hansoms. Some
Tunbridge Wells companies,like James Bartlett,A. Oliver & Son and G & J. Smith also later became engaged  in the manufacture of carriages.

At the turn of the century the normal fare was a shilling for the first 2 miles then a sixpence for each additional mile or part of a mile.Items like the handling of luggage and waiting time were extra charges at a fixed rate. Fly proprietors were licensed to both limit their numbers and to ensure public safety. In Tunbridge Wells,a review of the Petty Session records leads one to conclude, based on the number of appearances before the court,that cabbies and fly drivers seemed to be a lawless bunch appearing on frequent occasions for the offences of furious driving, plying their trade without the necessary license or being drunk in charge of a conveyance. There was plenty of opportunity for fly drivers to become intoxicated in Tunbridge Wells as the number of beerhouses about the town was well above what any person would consider necessary.One regular visitor to the court in Tunbridge Wells was a man known as George W who over a twenty year period had appeared at the bench ninety three times ,been convicted 26 times , spent over 4 years in prison and paid over 20 pounds in fines. In 1868 George had been seen picking up passengers at the Flower Show and was charged with plying for hire in an unlicensed fly.When he appeared before the magistrate he tried to excuse his actions by claiming that he had picked up the Honorable F.G. Molymeux,who was on the bench.Moymeux replied George was "so disquised in his livery that he did not know it was him until he was some distance into his journey".George of course was found guilty of the charge.George also liked his beer and consumed it to excess and had also been charged previously on several occasions  with being drunk while operating a conveyance.

In 1840 there were 12 coach and fly proprietors in Tunbridge Wells namely Joseph Ames at Farrington Place;John Bennett on Church Road;George Doncet at Calverley mews;James Hollamby at Chapel Place;John Tarbutt on Mount Ephraim. On London road there was Edward Church,George Jeffery and Luke Long.On Mount Sion were the premises of William Ralph and Edward Roach with John Langridge and Thomas Wightwick plying their trade at Back Parade.In 1847 there were 19 in the business and of that number only Joseph Ames,John Bennett,John Langridge,Edward Roach and John Tarbutt were still in business since 1840 with the remaining 14 being recent additions to the trade. One of the newcomers,the only lady fly proprietor,was Helen Waghorn on High Street.By 1882 the number of fly proprietors remained about the same and in 1891 only a slight increase to 27 in total,indicating that the numbers of people in the business was being well regulated and dictated to some degree by the demand for their services by the paying public.In the summer tourist season business was brisk but dropped off substantially in the off season.

By the turn of the century automobiles began to appear on the scene but initially had little impact on the carriage trade as they were so few in number and somewhat unreliable due to mechanical breakdown. The postcard view opposite of Grove Hill Road in the early 20th century shows how few motor cars were on the road at that time. As vehicles advanced in their design,manufacture and numbers, the number of business engaged in the hiring out of the horse and carriage began to decline .Some of the previous fly proprietors made the transition to hiring out motor vehicles with drivers(our modern form of taxi cab business) and new companies arose in Tunbridge Wells that were managed by individuals who had no prior connection to the horse and wagon.The cab enjoyed popularity in Britain until the 1920's by which time cheap cars and the expansion of reliable mass-transport systems led to a decline in usage.The first horseless cab,the Bersey electric powered vehicle,appeared in London in 1897,followed by the first internal combustion engine cab in 1903.The last license for a horse-drawn cab in London was issued in 1947. Examples of fine cabs and carriages can be seen in many museums such as that of the National Trust in Arlington.

Shown below are tables for Hackney Coach Fares. The one on the left was published in Colbrans 1850 guide and the one on the right appeared in both Bracketts 1866 guide and Peltons 1876 guide. They identify that there were three classes depending on the type of conveyance. The rates charged were based on distance travelled and time with additional charges for travelling after 12 midnight.


As can be seen from the early 20th century postcard views of Tunbridge Wells ,very few motor cars were in use, and most modes of conveyance, both commercial and private, were by horse drawn Flys, carriages and omnibuses.

Although motorcars, owned by such wealthy gentlemen as David Lionel Salamons, who had an impressive collection of them, and who played a leading role in the famous 1895 Horseless Carriage Exhibition in the town , could be seen occasionally on the street, they were still largely too expensive to buy and maintain by the general public. It was not until about 1903 that motor cars and motorized taxis became more common. As can be seen from the early 20th century postcards of the town, streets, unlike today, were largely devoid of traffic and the appearance of a motorized taxi was a rarity.

The earliest form of motorized taxi in use in Tunbridge Wells was not purpose built but instead a standard 4 door sedan style motorcar, similar to or the same as the examples shown in this article. The taxi meter had been invented in Germany in 1897 and taxis of the early 20th century in Tunbridge Wells and elsewhere in Britain were equipped with them. A light on the roof and signage on the body identified the vehicle as a taxi. In the 1940’s the two way radio came into use which allowed communication between the driver of the taxi and the dispatch office. In the 1980’s computer assisted dispatching came into use. In 2008 testing began on the production of solar power taxis. In the 21st century alternative types of fuel to petrol, including battery power were introduced in some measure as an aid to saving the environment etc.

As noted in the next section of this article the motorized taxi industry in Britain is heavily regulated and since the first taxi appeared on the streets of Tunbridge Wells, the vehicle and driver and the company that operated the service had to be licensed.

A feel for how the local industry has developed over time can perhaps best be seen from the results of reviewing local trade directories, which I conducted for the period of 1903 to 1938. Directories of 1903 to 1918 showed that there was not a single motorized cab(taxi)proprietor in the town, although there were three in nearby Tonbridge. At that time the taxi industry was being served by horse drawn conveyances.

Ever since railway service came to town in the mid 19th century and the Central and West train stations were built a regular Fly,carriage, and omnibus service stopped at the stations to pick up and drop off passengers, which did a good trade transporting people back and forth from the station to their places of residence or business. When motorized taxis appeared in the town, they likewise continued this service. Early postcard views showing Mount Pleasant Road and the SER station for example show then as they do now, a taxi rank, at the station, where taxis converged. Show above is a view of Mount Pleasant Road and the SER station with one taxi parked out front.

In 1922 there were three cab proprietors in Tonbridge. In the same year, in Tunbridge Wells there were two, namely Frederick Thomas Reeves who operated from Prospect Road and a Mr. E. Watson who operated from 25 London Road. Although details about Mr Watson were not found, as he was not listed in the 1901 and 1911 census records of the town, it appears he did not start his business until after 1911 and more likely after the end of WW 1. He was not listed in business in the 1930 directory. Shown opposite is a view of the High Street circa 1930 and below it another view of High Street on a busy day. It may be difficult to pick them out in this view but a few of the vehicles are taxis.

Frederick Thomas Reeves however is better known. He is still found as a taxi proprietor at Prospect Road in Kelly directories of 1930,1934 and 1938 and appears to have still been in business throughout WW II. Like many men who went into the motorized taxi business, he began in the horse drawn carriage trade.

Frederick Thomas Reeves was born 1884 in Tunbridge Wells, one of several children born to Frederick and Charlotte Reeves. The 1891 census, taken at 1 Brickfield Cottage in Rusthall New Town, Speldhurst, gave Frederick Reeves as a fly proprietor and groom, born 1855 in Seal,Kent. With him was his wife Charlotte. Born 1853 in London and their four children including Frederick Thomas Reeves who was attending school. At the time of the 1901 census Frederick was living with his parents and six siblings at 14 Glen Cottage in Rusthall where his father owned a stable business as home. At the time of the 1911 census, taken at 33 Little Mount Sion, Tunbridge Wells, Frederick was single and working as  a “cabman on own account”. He was living at that time as a boarder with William Albert England, a cabman, and his family. Frederick Thomas Reeves passed away in Uckfield, Sussex October 31,1952.

It was significant to note during a review of directories how much the taxi trade had changed over the period of 1922 to 1930, for by 1930 there was at least four times as many cab proprietors in operation in Kent then there was in 1922. Shown opposite is a view of Mount Pleasant Road in front of the Civic Centre which in addition to one cab and a couple of motor cars can be seen two motorized omnibuses.

The 1930  Kelly directory listed the following local cab proprietors;

1)    Edward & Edward Horace Beadle (taxi) Southwood Road, Rusthall, who was also found in a 1929 directory in this business as well as in directories of 1934 but not in 1938.

2)    Victor Bonhouse, 26 Auckland Road, who was not listed in 1934

3)    Arthur Hall (taxi), 3 Monson Road. In the 1934 directory he was in the same business but operating from premises at 40 Monson Road. No listing for him was found in 1938.

4)    Frederick Thomas Reeves (taxi) Prospect Road, details of whom were given above.

5)    Edward Sheepwash (taxi) 14 Pennington Road and Castle Street, Southborough. He was not listed in business in the 1934 directory.

6)    Frank Simms (taxi) 116a Upper Grosvenor Road. He was still in this business at the same address in 1934 but gone by 1938.

7)    Edwin L. Sumner, 36 Garden Road. He was still in this business at the same location in 1934 but gone by 1938.

8)    William Wightwick (taxi) 29 Standen Road. He was still there in the same business in 1934 and 1938.

Definitive information about some of the above men could not be obtained, but below is information about the others.

The last image in this section is a view of Calverley Road WWII era.


Edward Horace Beale was born April 8,1900 in Hampshire. He was baptised May 6,1900 at Headley All Saints and was one of five known children born to Edward Beadle (1874-1940) and Florence Beadle, nee Charman (1873-1956). Edward senior and Florence were married August 26,1863 at Worth St Nicholas,Sussex.

At the time of the 1901 census, taken at Groyahott, Hamsphire Edward was living with his parents and three siblings, where his father was a coachman domestic.

At the time of the 1911 census, taken at The Stables, West Harling, Norfolk Edward Horace Beadle was in school and living with his parents and two sisters in premises of 5 rooms.His father was a coachman domestic.

In the 3rd qtr of 1928 Edward Horace Beadle married Elizabeth M. Moon inTunbridge Wells.

Probate records gave Edware Horace Beadle of 43 Southwood Road, Rushthall,Tunbridge Wells, when he died June 20,1985 leaving an estate valued at under 40,000 pounds.  Southwood Road was the same location where the father and son operated their business.  Edward Beadle senior died in Tunbridge Wells July 15,1940 and his wife died in Tunbridge Wells September 18,1956.

Edward Beadle senior and his son went into business together in Tunbridge Wells, initially operating horse drawn conveyances but as the demand for motorized taxis grew they replaced their horse drawn cabs with motorized taxis.


Edward Sheepwash was born 1863 at Halling, Kent and was the son of William Sheepwash (1837-1930), who died in Canterbury, Jane Sheepwash. At the time of the 1871 census he was living in Seasater, Kent with his parents. His father at that time was a shephard and Edward was attending school.

At the time of the 1881 census he was working as a servant(butcher) at 42 Court Street, Favisham,Kent, a butchers shop run by Richard W Shilling.

In the 3rd qtr of 1886 he married Sarah Elizabeth Webb at Canterbury, Kent. She had been born in 1867 and together they had a son William Edward Sheewash (1897-1995), who died at the Pembury Hospital on August 21,1995.

The 1891 census, taken at 122 St Mary’s Road in Faversham, Kent gave Edward as a butcher employer. With him was his wife Sarah Elizabeth and their 2 year old daughter Cecelia. Also there were two butchers assistants.

The 1901 census, taken at 23 Victoria Street, Southborough gave Edward as a job master with a stable at home, on own account. With him was his children Cecelia, Rhoda and William Edward.

The 1911 census, taken at 14 Pennington Road, Southborough gave Edward as a jobmaster employer. With him was his 13 year old son William Edward who was in school. The census recorded that they were living in premises of 4 rooms; that he had been married 24 years and had three children who were all living.

Edward Sheepwash became involved in local politics as noted in the Kent & Sussex courier of March 9,1923.

His son William Edward Sheepwash served in WW 1 as a private with the Army Service Corps. He was attested November 1,1915 and from that time until April 5,1916 he was home at 14 Pennington Road. His father Edward Sheepwash of the same address was given as next of kin. William served in France up to and including 1917 and then served out the remainder of the war in Italy until February 1,1918.

Probate records for Edward Sheepwash gave him of 14 Pennington Road, Southborough when he died March 22,1948 at 137 Upper Grosvenor Road, Tunbridge Wells. The executors of his 485 pound estate was Frank Stephan Stonham, undertaker, and Reginald John Sheepworth, taxi cab proprietor.

An interesting reference to Edward Sheepwash can be found on the website ‘Castles on the Ground’ which in part referred to the authors residence at 18 Pennington Road, a road named after Dr Robert Pennington (1766-1849) who was a surgeon practicing in London, who had bought the land on which the road was constructed. On this road were built red brick terraces between 1820 and 1830, of which 14 Pennington Road was one. The article states that 18 Pennington Road was once the property of Mrs Florence Jane Ravlious but she sold it to Edward Sheepwash “a noted car proprietor of 14 Pennignton Road”. “Sheepwashe’s offices were at 14 Pennington Road and his conveyance stables were directly behind Pennington in what was Castle Street Mews. The carriage works later became a car mechanics workshop which were then demolished in 2011 to make way for four terrace houses. After doing some digging around I found two interesting cuttings about Mr Sheepwash including a wedding mishap (Maidstone Journal and Kentish Advertiser Dec. 5.1901) and a fire and burglary (Courier Jan. 9.1913). With respect to the burglary the newspaper reported that some lads had set alight his barn, broke into his house, stole money, and took buns and cakes. Mr Sheepwash was also the President of the R.A.O.B (the Buffalos)in Southborough. William Edward Sheepwash died in 1945 and the house bequeathed to his widow Hetty Madge Sheepwash, who later remarried and became Hetty Madge Barnes. The house was sold to Charles Frederick Alexander in 1966.”


Edwin was born in the 2nd qtr of 1881 at Eridge,Sussex and was one of at least four children born to Lewis Sumner, born 1847 at Rotherfield, Sussex, a gardener operating his own business and Harriet Sumner.  Edwin’s birth was registered at Uckfield, Sussex and he was baptised Februay 2,1881 at Eridge Green, Sussex.

The 1891 census, taken at Rusthall New Town, Speldhurst gave Edwin along with his sister Olive and brother Reginald living with their grandmother Harriet Sumner.

The 1901 census, taken at 7 St Paul’s Street in Rusthall gave Lewis Sumner as a gardener on own account. With him was his son Edwin, a coachman and his Lewis’ other children Olive, a dressmaker, Reginald and Winnie.

In the 4th qtr of 1908, in Tunbridge Wells, Edwin married Florence Minnie Twort (1884-1967) one of five children born to Joseph Herbert Twort (1848-1908) and Letitia Gertrude Twort, nee Passmore (1856-1928).

The 1911 census, taken at 1 Roseberry Terrce, Underdown Road, Dover, gave Edwin Lewis Sumner as a professional skater on own means. With him was his wife Florence Minnie, born 1884 in Tunbridge Wells and his brother Reginald Herbert Sumner,age 23, an assistant outfitter. The census recorded that the couple had been married 2 years; that they had no children, and that they were living in premises of 5 rooms.

Probate records gave Edwin Lewis Sumner of 24 Garden Road, Tunbridge Wells when he died December 27,1954. The executor of his 950 pound estate was Madge Olive Calcutt (wife of Thomas William Calcutt). He was buried in the Tunbridge Wells Borough Cemetery on December 31,1954. As noted in the directory listings presented earlier Edwin operated his taxi business from premises at 36 Garden Road.


William was born 1872 in Tunbridge Wells. His birth was registered in Tunbridge Wells in the 1st qtr of 1872.  He was at least one of six children born to James and Elizabeth Wightwick.

The 1881 census, taken at Denny Bottom, Speldhurst, gave James Whitwhick as born 1841 in Tunbridge Wells and working as a cabinet maker. With him was his wife Elizabeth, born 1841 in Hastings,Sussex and his children Alfred,age 15; Kate,age 12; William Medhurst,age 9; Walter,age 7; Albert,age 2 and Thomas,age 1. All of the children had been born in Tunbridge Wells.

The 1891 census, taken at 12 Upper Street,Speldhurst, gave James Wightwick as a cabinet maker. With him was his wife Elizabeth and children Katie Annie,age 22, William Medhurst,age 19, a saddle and harness maker worker, and Albert Edward,age 12, a scholar.

In the 4th qtr of 1896 William married Alice Emily Young in Tunbridge Wells.

The 1901 census, taken at 4 Dodds Place, Dover, Kent, gave William as a harness maker. With him was his wife Alice, born 1876 in Tunbridge Wells and their children Alice,age 4, Kate,age 2 and Violet age 4 mths. The two eldest children had been born in Tunbridge Wells with Violet born in Dover.

The 1911 census, taken at 4 Bow Terrace in Waterinbury gave William as a harness maker. With him was his wife Alice and their children Mabel, Katie and Violet. The census recorded that they had been marrie4d 15 years; that they had 3 children and that they were living in premises of 4 rooms.

Later the family returned to live and work in Tunbridge Wells and took up residence at 29 Standen Road, premises from which William operated his taxi business.

William died in Tunbridge Wells in February 1962 and was buried in the Tunbridge Wells Borough Cemetery on February 22,1962.


Frank was born 1884 in Sutton Coldfield, Warwickshire, the son of John Simms,born 1853 in Bourton, Warwichsire, a painter labourer, and Mary Ann Simms, born 1852 in Willington, Warwickshire. He was one of at least 9 children in the family.

The 1891 census, taken at Sutton Coldfield,Warwickshire gave John Simms as a painter. With him was his first wife Mary Ann and their seven children, including their son Frank,age 7. Sometime before 1901 John’s wife passed away and he married Louisa, born 1868 at Kingbury, Staffordshire.

The 1901 census, taken at 56 Farthing Lane in Coldfield, Warwickshire, gave John Simms as a painter labourer. With him was his second wife Louisa and their son Frank, age 16.

In the 1st qtr of 1910 Frank Simms married Annie Lillian Dixon who was born 1888 in London.

The 1911 census, taken at 64 Culverden Park Road, Tunbridge Wells, gave Frank as a mechanic chauffeur domestic. With him was his wife Annie Lillian and their daughter Dorothea Eileen, born 1910 in Tunbridge Wells.

In the 3rd qtr of 1933 Frank married his second wife Emma Florence Gardner, in Tunbridge Wells.

Probate records gave Frank Simms of 116 a Upper Grosvenor Road,Tunbridge Wells when he died August 12,1955 at the Pembury Hospital. The executor of his 1,285 pound estate was his widow Emma Florence Simms. Edwin was buried in the Tunbridge Wells Borough Cemetery.


From a website on taxi history is was reported the industrial action by cab drivers in 1911 over fares and in 1913 over fuel almost crippled the trade and severely reduced the number of big fleets and the manufacturers associated with them. At the outbreak of WW1 there was just one make available to buy, the Unic.

The First World War devastated the taxi trade, Production of the Unic ceased for the duration of the war as the company turned to producing munitions. The majority of younger cabmen were called up for military service and those that remained had to drive worn-out cabs. By 1918 these remnant vehicles were sold at highly inflated prices, often beyond the pockets of the returning servicemen, and the trade deteriorated.

Between the wars the production of new taxis commenced and several new types were produced. William Beardmore & Co Ltd of Scotland built the first post-war taxi in Paisley, Glasgow, which was introduced in 1919, which because of its sturdiness and comfort became known as ‘the Rolls Royce of cabs”. A new model, the MK 2 ‘Super’ followed in 1923. A citroen cab was introduced in 1921, as was an updated version of the pre-war Unic. By 1927 on British manufacturer, other than Beardmore were producing taxi for this small trade. In 1929,taxi dealers Mann and Overton sponsored a new Austin cab for London and was a commercial success. By 1934 the Austin taxi outsold all others due to its cheaper price and reliability.

During WW2 the younger cabmen were once again called up for military service and the production of new cabs were again hauled for the duration. The taxi trade was one area during the war where women did not take over a man’s role, as there was no time for the women tp undergo the extensive ‘knowledge of London’ topographical test that the men had completed. A large number of cabs along with drivers were requisitioned by the Auxiliary Fire Service to tow trailer pumps but were found to be too underpowered for the job, although some drivers remained in the AFA and served with distinction. For the trade in general, the remaining cabmen had to drive cabs that were maintained to the best of their owners’ limited resources on severely rationed petrol in blacked-out, bomb-damaged streets. The trade once again went into a state of decline.

After the war there was an urgent need for new taxis as all the pre-war models had been discontinued. Manufacturers stepped forward and went into production of several new models, such as the 1947 Oxford, the 1948 Austin and others such as the Austin FX4 introduced in 1958. Production of this model ended in 1997 after some 75,000 of them had been built.

Further details about the various types of taxis produced and companies that made them can be found on the taxi history website.


An indepth investigation into those operating a taxi service in Tunbridge Wells after 1938 was not undertaken however I noted that today at least 6 companies in operation, among which were Streamline, County Cars, Crown Cars, Starline Taxi, MS Executive Chauffeurs and Kent Chauffeurs, but this list is by no means complete.

During my research for an article about the Green Line Bus Depot on Lime Hill Road I recorded that Starline Taxi once had their taxi premises there. From my article ‘The History of The Green Line Bus Depot on Lime Hill Road’ dated July 22,2016 is the information below.

The bus depot was built in 1936 at the west end of a triangular shaped plot of land on Lime Hill Road on the north west corner of the intersection at 5 ways. In 1971 Starline Taxi began operations in Tunbridge Wells and what had originally just been a depot for the Green Line coaches became the taxi office/depot for Starline. In 1989 Planning Authority approval was requested for redevelopment of Lime Hill Road,which included the realignment of Lime Hill Road; the demolition of the public toilets at 5 Ways; the demolition of the Starline Taxi Depot and the construction of an office block on the plot of land occupied by the Starline Taxi depot and forecourt. Although approval was given it had lapsed and further applications were made in 1995, 2000, and 2001. A letter from the Planning files dated March 25,2002 indicated that demolition of the depot was about to begin. Soon after  it was quickly reduced to a pile of rubble and hauled away, eliminating an interesting example of an Art Deco building from the landscape. Shown above is a photo of the Green Line depot on Lime Hill Road, taken August  1975 in which can be seen some Starline taxis.

Records indicate that Starline began in the town in 1971 when Starline (Transport) Ltd was incorporated on May 19 of that year. A person who worked for Starline as a driver stated “ I was a part-time cab driver for Starline from 1972 to about 1980. The office was used by Starline for accounts/wages to the right; a hire department in the middle; and cab drivers and rest rooms in the middle also. The are to the left was always empty and full of junk”. This taxi firm of course had other premises in the town. A recent directory for Starline Taxi has them with premises at 5 Lime Hill Road.


The taxi service in the Borough is governed by the Hackney Carriage & Private Hire Licensing Policy 2012. The aim of licensing the hackney carriage and private hire vehicle trade is, primarily, to protect the public as well as to ensure that the public have reasonable access to these services, because of the part they play in local transport provision. The licensing powers are used to ensure that licensed vehicles in the district are safe, comfortable, properly insured and available where and when required. The hackney carriage and private hire industry within the Council’s area is comprehensive and provides its population with a reasonable service.

In 2012 the Council licensed 114 Operators, 107 hackney carriages and approximately 186 private hire vehicles. There are approximately 330 drivers licensed by the Council that are able to drive both vehicles.

The Council has responsibility for licensing hackney carriage and private hire vehicles, drivers and operators within the borough of Tunbridge Wells. It has traditionally exercised this responsibility through a number of different policies and procedures that have been developed over a significant number of years.

[1] FARES……The maximum fare a Hackney Carriage can charge in the Borough is set by Tunbridge Wells Borough Council. The fares were set in January 2011, and have remained the same since. Fares charged are based on the distance and time to travel, the time of day and the day travelled as specified in the Tariff Schedule.

[2] DRIVERS LICENCES………..To apply for a licence you must have held a full UK driving licence for at least one year. You will also be required to undertake and pass appropriate tests identified in the guidance notes which accompany the application pack.  Applicants will also need to complete the relevant Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) check (previously Criminal Records Bureau CRB check).Tunbridge Wells Borough Council issues dual driver licences.

A licensed driver when driving a Hackney Carriage can:

•Stop in a taxi rank

•Be hailed in the street

•Ply for hire

Hackney Carriages must:

•Have a meter which has a maximum fare set by the Council; and

•Be a vehicle that is white in colour, unless a London Style Cab

Private Hire Vehicles

A licensed driver when driving a Private Hire Vehicle, must only undertake pre-booked journeys

•Cannot stop at a taxi rank

•Cannot be hailed in the street

•Cannot ply for hire

The Council’s Hackney Carriage Fare Table does not apply to Private Hire Vehicles.  The fare should be agreed before the journey begins.

[3] VEHICLE LICENSE……..A vehicle must be  licensed before it can be used as a taxi. It is checked for  the age, type, size and mechanical condition of the vehicle.

[4] VEHICLE OPERATOR’S LICENSE……….Any person who operates a private hire service utilising one or more private hire vehicles must apply to Tunbridge Wells Borough Council for a Private Hire Operator's Licence.

A private hire operator must ensure that every private hire vehicle is driven by a person who holds a private hire driver's licence and all three licences listed below must be issued by the same Licensing Authority.

•private hire operator's licence;

•private hire driver's licence; and

•private hire vehicle licence;


Calverley Road South west side - north junction with Garden Street

Camden Road North of Junction with Calverley Road

Church Road South side - west of junction with Mount Pleasant Road

Linden Park Road South side - near bus stops

Mount Ephraim Road South side - east of junction with Hanover Road

Mount Ephraim Road/Lime Hill Road By Five Ways - at junction of Mount Ephraim Road/Lime Hill Road

Mount Pleasant Avenue South side - east of junction with Mount Pleasant Road

Newton Road South side - east of junction with Mount Pleasant Road

The Pantiles (Lower Walk) North side - east of junction with Linden Park Road

Vale Road Front of Railway Station

Mount Pleasant Road Rear of Railway Station (photo above)



Written By: Edward James Gilbert-Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

Date: October 16,2016


No. 44 Broadwater Down, known as ‘Broadwater Court’ in the early 1900’s ,was a grand Victorian style red brick home of 22 rooms (1911 census). It was built circa 1885 to the design of architect William Young who also designed No. 42 Broadwater Down in 1878.  It is speculated by the researcher that the home was built by Alfred John Mansfield, the son of George Mansfield who was the Principal Builder in the Broadwater Down Development and operated as George Mansfield & Son.

Located on the north side of Broadwater Down, towards the west end of the Broadwater Down Development is was one of the larger homes in the subdivision. The road “Broadwater Down” itself had been built in 1860 between Eridge Road on the west and Frant Road on the east. The original development consisted of 46 homes and St Marks Church but over the years many of the original homes were demolished, or their grounds greatly diminished ,as the area was redeveloped in the 20th century, which redevelopment included the construction of several roads branching off Broadwater Down and homes built on them. This was accomplished by redeveloping the side and rear parts of the grounds of the original homes. Broadwater Down was a lovely tree-lined road as can be seen the postcard view opposite by local photographer and postcard printer/publisher Harold H. Camburn.

No. 44 Broadwater Down is fortunately one of the homes that have survived but in the 20th century was converted into flats. Most of the eastern and northern parts of the original grounds were divided off from the home with an access road (called Broadwater Court) with five modern style homes built on it in the late 20th century. The  old entrance lodge and coachman’s cottage still exist today but have been upgraded to accommodate modern living requirements.

The first known occupant of the home was Herbert Jameson Waterlow (1846-1921) who was a wealthy wholesale stationer who had been born in Lambeth, Surrey and died in London. He is recorded at 44 Broadwater Down in the 1891 census and 1899 Kelly but left the home before 1901. Mr Waterlow was a distinguished gentleman for whom some six pages is information was given in the 1881 publication ‘Celebrities of the Day’ under the heading of “Ex-Sheriff Waterlow”. When he died he left an estate valued at 75,000 pounds.

By 1901 the home became the residence of George Rainy Young (1839-1904). This gentleman was a wealthy East India merchant who had been born in British Guyana and although he died in Venice, Italy his probate records gave him as a resident of 44 Broadwater Down, Tunbridge Wells, and left an estate valued at almost 97,000 pounds. His wife Jane Armstrong Young (1847-1930) remained at the home for a short time after the death of her husband but moved to Hyde Park, London, where she died.

The next family to live in the home was a well-known and wealthy gentleman ‘Sir William Dunn’ (1833-1912) and his wife Lady Sarah Elizabeth Dunn (1842-1919). The couple never had any children. They are listed at “Broadwater Court”, 44 Broadwater Down in the 1911 census along with three nieces and 9 servants. Also on the premises, from the time the home was built, was a gardeners cottage/lodge of 4 rooms and a coachmans house of four rooms & stables.  These were occupied by a gardener and his family and a coachman and his family, as well as a groom. By 1911 Sir William Dunn employed both a chauffeur and a coachman, and because of their advancing age they also employed two nursing assistants. Although the lodge and cottage still exist much of the grounds of the main residence were lost when the site was redeveloped in the 20th century to make way for the Broadwater Court Development. Sir William Dunn had premises in Lakenheath, Suffolk and Kensington, Middlesex as well as his Broadwater Down residence when he died at his Tunbridge Wells residence on March 31,1912, leaving an estate of some 750,000 pounds. Sir William Dunn was a philanthropist and left vast sums of money to various causes during his life and upon his death. His wife Lady Sarah Elizabeth Dunn died in London in 1919.

After the Dunn family left the home it became the residence of Henry Van Den Bergh (1853-1937) and his wife Henrietta Charlotte Van Den Bergh (1868-1927), both of whom had been born in Holland. Henry was a wealthy provisions merchant who had many employees and operated his business in London but commuted to Tunbridge Wells and resided there during the summer season and holidays. He is found listed at 44 Broadwater Down in the directories of 1913,1918 and 1922.  He had married Hentrietta Charlotte Spanjaard in 1887 and with her had six children, all born in London. Henry died in Nice France while a resident of Kensington, London, leaving an estate of some 159,000 pounds. Probate records for his wife Henrietta gave her of 8 Kensington Palace Gardens, Kensington, London and of Broadwater Court, Tunbridge Wells when she died at The Hogue, Holland in 1927.

The last resident of 44 Broadwater, during the study period up to post WW II was the Phillips family, consisting initially in the 1930 Kely directory with Arthur Isaac Phillips and his family, and in the 1934 and 1938 Kelly directories by his son Philip Arthur Godfrey Phillips and his family. I have written extensively before about this family in my article ‘The History of Holden House’ dated March 26,2014. The Sevenoaks Chronicle and Kentish Advertiser of November 14,1947 announced “ Mrs Blanche Phillips and Mr Philip Godfrey Phillips have removed from Broadwater Court, their permanent address will be Holden House, Southborough”.

This article reports on the location and design of the main house and its ancillary buildings and extensive grounds as well as the occupants of the home up to 1947. Information about the architect who designed the home is also given. Shown above is a postcard view of the home as “Broadwater Court” dated 1910, an image taken when the home was occupied by Sir William Dunn. This is a view of the front of the home looking in a westerly direction and is the only known image of the residence, which today is obscured from view from the road, apart from a glimpse of it at the drive entrance, by extensive vegetation that lines the road and grounds boundaries.


Details about the Broadwater Down Development were given in my article ‘The Broadwater Down Development’ dated November 22,2013. Apart from an overall description of the development from 1860 onwards, a list of occupants of the homes in it from circa 1860 up to 1938 was presented, as well as a series of maps and photographs.

Shown opposite is a 1907 OS map of Broadwater Down on which is highlighted in red the location of No. 44 Broadwater Down ( the main house); in green the Lodge, at the drive entrance, and in blue the coachman’s cottage and stables.  Just to the east of  the lodge and stable block of No. 44 was another large home at No. 42 that was built in 1878 to the design if architect William Young, who also designed No. 44. As can be seen from this map the extent of the grounds of this residence was considerable, being a few acres in size, making it a prime candidate for future redevelopment. On these grounds was an orchard and a large greenhouse which can be seen on the map.

Shown opposite is an architectural plan by William Young for No. 42 Broadwater Down that appeared in The Builder of 1878. Mr Young was of Exeter Hall and a noted architect of his time, details of whom are given in the next section of this article. Regarding No. 42 The Builder stated “ The house is situated on a most picturesque site, and is built of red brick, half -timber, and weather tiles. The building together with oak chimney pieces, and other internal decorative works-designed by the architect in harmony with the style of the building-has been carried out in a very satisfactory manner by Mr G. Mansfield of Tunbridge Wells (The Building News , October 11,1878).  Much of the information given for No. 42 also applies to No. 44. This is verified by comparing the architect drawing of No. 42 with the photo of No. 44 given in the ‘Overview’.  Who built No. 44 is not known but perhaps it was also Mr G. Mansfield, for whom I give further information in a later part of this article.

Shown opposite is a map from the Planning Authority Files dated 1988, which shows the existence of the road Broadwater Court and five homes that were built on it.  As one can see on this map, “The Cottage” at the original drive entrance to the grounds of the estate, is still there as is “The Mews” at the rear of it which was once the coachmans cottage and stables. Wedged in between these two dwellings and the main house at No. 44 with a new drive entrance, is the Broadwater Court Development.

Shown opposite from Google Maps is a 2016 view of the current drive entrance to No. 44. The number appears on a plaque on each side of the drive brick wall (a modern addition) and peeking through the trees can be seen a partial view of the front of the old residence, which matches that shown of the home given earlier. Unfortunately a good photo of the home, as it appears today, is not available without permission from the owners, due to the extensive growth of trees and shubs along the entire frontage that block the view of the home. As one can see online No. 44 was constructed of red brick with white window frames.

The exact date when the home was built has not been established but by a process of elimination an estimate has been made. No listing for the home in the directories of 1882 and before was found and no 1881 census record was found. No. 42 was built in 1878 and appears in the 1881 census and all records beyond that year. The 1891 census records the existence of No. 44 as do all records after that date. An so one can say that No. 44 was built after 1881 but before 1899 and most likely circa 1885.

Given the excellent photo of the home in the ‘Overview” and other information already given there is no need to  provide a further description of this 22 room home for as they say “ a picture is worth a thousand words”.

The  ‘Directory of Museums and Living Displays’ dated 1989 which gave the following “ The Broadwater Collection-Broadwater Court, Tunbridge Wells-A collection of office and domestic appliances together with transport models commemorating Sir David Salamon’s Exhibition of Horseless Carriages at Tunbridge Wells 1895”. The date of 1895 pertains to the year of the exhibition and not the year of the record. Whether the place of this collection is in No. 44 Broadwater Court or one of the modern homes in the Broadwater Court development is not known.

Another interesting record is one from a website ‘Quiet Garden Movement’ regarding Court Lodge, described as “a private home with a garden of about an acre on the edge of Tunbridge Wells that was part of a large Victorian garden, including the greenhouse and orchard, it is hidden inside stone gate posts named Broadwater Court and is on a steep slope with a number of ornamental trees and a pond. There is parking from 3 cars and others can park on the road. There are about 10 places where you can sit in private and some out of the rain. Host Name-Hilary Welch Court Lodge 44 Broadwater Down,Tunbridge Wells”.

The Broadwater Court Development is run by the Broadwater Court Management Company (02401212) at 44 Broadwater Down. Appointment of directors for it date back to 1993 but corporation records note that it was started July 5,1989 and that Richard Angelis worked as a director of that company from the date of formation until he resigned March 2,1996.

A review of Planning Authority Records shows that No. 44 was converted into flats A-G and that the old coachmans cottage (Mews) the entrance lodge still exist but have undergone some alteration as noted in various planning applications. An application dated 1982 refers to No. 44 by the name of “Charterers” in an application by Dr. W.C. Davies. Details of the various applications pertaining to No 44 can be seen online from the Planning Authority website. Shown above is a map from the Planning Files showing the Broadwater Court development.


Given here is an account about the architect William Young (1843-1900) from my article ‘The History of No. 42 Broadwater Down’ dated November 26,2013.

The following information about William Young is from the Biography of Scottish Architects. “William Young was born in Paisley in 1843 (christened 25 March), the son of James Young, bootmaker and spirit dealer, and his wife Helen Nisbet. About 1857 he was articled to James Jamieson Lamb of Paisley, but in 1859 he moved to the office of William Nairne Tait in Glasgow. Although not included in his RIBA nomination paper a well-informed articled in 'The Bailie' records that he spent some time with Salmon Son & Ritchie and a period in Manchester before settling in London in 1865 as assistant to Charles Henry Howell, the Surrey County Surveyor. This enabled him to study at the South Kensington Schools prior to commencing independent practice in 1869. In the same year he produced 'Picturesque Examples of Old English Churches and Cottages from Sketches in Sussex and the Adjoining Counties', published in Birmingham in 1869. This book brought him to the attention of Lord Elcho who found him 'living in chambers in Exeter Hall, a young unknown architect without even a draughtsman'. In the following year he was commissioned by Elcho to put up the National Rifle Brigade's timber marquee at Wimbledon Common which had a floor area of 50,000 square feet, and in 1873 Elcho's brother-in-law, William Wells MP, commissioned a large country house from him. Thereafter the recommendations of Elcho and Wells brought a steady stream of up-market house work culminating in Chelsea House, Cadogan Place for Earl Cadogan for which he made a study tour of Florence, Venice and Rome. It established his reputation in London, John McKean Brydon observing of him that 'No man knew more the requirements of the great country house, or how more effectively to carry them out'. Shown below is a photograph of No. 42 Broadwater Down which was designed and finished in a similar manner to No. 44.

Young's practice was heavily backed up by a continuing programme of publishing. In 1872 he brought out 'Picturesque Architectural Studies and Practical Designs for Gate Lodges, Cottages, Cottage Hospitals etc' . It would appear that Young had formed a partnership about this time as a number of the plates in this book were by Shaw & Young architects or R M Shaw & W Young. It is as yet unclear how long this partnership lasted. 'Picturesque Architectural Studies' were followed by 'Town and Country Mansions with Notes on the Sanitary and Artistic Construction of Houses', 1878, and 'Town and Country Mansions and Suburban Houses', 1873, all of which were published in London and New York. These form a record of his earlier practice. In parallel with these he became the founder editor of E & F N Spon's long-running 'Architects and Builders Pocket Book' in 1873.

In 1877 Young attempted to establish himself as an architect of major public buildings, by entering the competition for Liverpool Stock Exchange in which according to 'The Bailie' (but not Harper) he was placed second. In June 1881, with the encouragement of Lord Elcho, Young entered the second Glasgow Municipal Buildings competition with a well-judged entry which improved upon but did not radically depart from Carrick's outline plans. He reached the second tier of the competition in January 1882 and was placed first by the assessors in June. He was unplaced in the competition for South Kensington Museum in 1891 but through the influence of Elcho, from 1883 the 9th Earl of Wemyss, he was given the commission for the new War Office in Whitehall without competition.

Young was admitted FRIBA on 12 January 1891, his proposers being Brydon, Howell and Charles Barry Junior. He died suddenly of pneumonia on 1 November 1900 at his home, Ingleside, 23 Oakhill Road, Putney and was buried at Putneyvale Cemetery. At the time of his death he had been working on extensive alterations and additions to Elveden Hall, Suffolk, the English seat of the first Viscount Iveagh, of whom he was the favoured architect, and for whom he had also made alterations to Farmleigh, County Dublin and designed a ballroom and other additions at Iveagh House, Dublin.

The work at Elveden Hall was completed and the practice continued after his death by his son Clyde Francis Young, born 1871, who had been taken into partnership in 1898 and retained the editorship of Spon's 'Practical Builders Pocket Book' and the 'Architects and Builders Price Book' as the original publication had become. Clyde had attended classes at South Kensington in 1889 prior to being articled to his father in 1890-94, during which period he had taken the courses at University College, London. He had travelled in France and Belgium, studying for a time at Lille, and then spent six months in Italy. He passed the qualifying exam in 1900 and was admitted ARIBA on 3 December, his proposers being John McKean Brydon, Thomas Drew and Edward William Mountford. He became a Fellow on 5 December 1910, his proposers being Thomas Edward Collcutt, Sir Aston Webb, and Sir John Taylor. His practice was a similar mix of major public buildings and country house work. He died on 4 May 1948, the practice being continued by his partner Bernard Engle.

The following information is from Wikipedia, and although it duplicates to some degree the information given above there is additional information about his career and projects he was associated with. “William Young (1843 – 1 November 1900) was a Scottish architect, the designer of Glasgow City Chambers.He was born in Paisley, Scotland in 1843, the son of James Young, a bootmaker and spirit dealer.

About 1857 he was articled to James Jamieson Lamb of Paisley, but moved in 1859 to the Glasgow office of William Nairne Tait. He then spent time in Manchester before settling in London in 1865 as an assistant in the office of Charles Henry Howell, the Surrey County Surveyor. This move gave him the chance to study at the South Kensington School in preparation for starting up in independent practice in 1869. In 1870 he was commissioned by Lord Elcho to erect a 50,000 square feet timber marquee at Wimbledon Common for the National Rifle Brigade. This was followed by a commission in 1873 from Lord Elcho's brother-in-law, William Wells, MP, to build him a large Tudor Gothic style country house, Holmewood Hall, near Peterborough.

He set up in premises in the Strand and received a steady stream of commissions, including Haseley Manor, Warwick (1875), Peebles Parish Church (1885-7) and new wings for Gosford House, Lothian (1891). In London he designed Chelsea House, Cadogan Place (1874) for Earl Cadogan and competed unsuccessfully in the South Kensington Museum Competition of 1891. With the help of Lord Elcho, however, he was given the commission for the new War Office in Whitehall (later completed by his son, Clyde Francis Young). In addition to his design work he wrote a number of publications to advertise his work, such as "Town and Country Mansions and Suburban Houses" in 1873 and "Town and Country Mansions with Notes on the Sanitary and Artistic Construction of Houses" in 1878.

In 1881 he won the competition for Glasgow City Chambers in George Square, Glasgow. This building, built between 1881 and 1890, features the largest set of sculptures in the city, symbolizing aspects of the city's industrial, commercial and cultural achievement.

He was admitted FRIBA in 1891. He died November 1, 1900 at his home in Putney and was buried at Putney Vale Cemetery. His practice was continued after his death by his son Clyde, who completed the work in progress of his father, including the extensive alterations to Elveden Hall, Suffolk.


Although no specific information was found as to who built No. 44 was found it is known that he built No. 42 in 1878  as well as several other homes in Broadwater Down. It is speculated by the researcher that his son Alfred John Mansfield built No. 44 and based on that premise I have provided the following information about him as it appeared in my article ‘ The Broadwater Estate Development’ dated November 26,2013

George Mansfield (1800-1882)was the builder of St Marks Church in 1864-1866 and his son Alfred John Mansfield  did additional work on the church in 1903.George was also the builder of the vicarage and he parsonage for the church and hired by the Marquess as the principal builder of the private residences in the estate. They had operated under the business name of George Mansfield and Son until their partnership was dissolved by mutual consent on March 24,1866. The companies address at that time was Gray’s Inn Lane in Middlesex but also had business premises in Tunbridge Wells.George Mansfield had an office in The Pantiles located behind the Bath House. The London Gazette of March 27,1866 gave the announcement of the dissolution of the company. After that George and his son operated separately but by 1866 George was essentially retired. His elder and younger son Henry however carried on his work.

The National Archives holds a large archive of documents pertaining to the Nevill family (The Marquess) and amongst those documenst is a contract entered into by them with George Mansfield. The contract  and related plans are dated 1862 and pertain to the construction of the road Broadwater Down; several homes and the church of St Marks as well as the dedication of the land for the church in 1866.

George Mansfield became the principal builder of homes with the Marquess retaining ownership of the land. The homes were kept as leasehold by the Nevill’s until many were sold as freehold interests in 1924 and more in the 1940’s. Some of the homes George constructed are identified on the architectural drawings as homes for the Marquess of  Abergavenny, with others being constructed for other parties. George himself is found living in one of the homes he constructed on Broadwater Down in the 1871 census (#21). In that census he was identified as a builder employing 90 men and three boys. Living with him was his wife Ann, born 1805 at Soho,London  and their two children Amy and Harry and a granddaughter. His son Harry(Henry) is working for his father as an assistant builder and he was born 1853 at Holburn,London. Also in the home were three servants. It is possible that it was George’s son Henry/Harry that was involved in the work on St Marks Church in 1903 and not his brother Alfred. Henry is shown in the records of Tonbridge School where he received his early education.

George Mansfield had been baptised August 1800 at St Andrew Holburn. He was the son of James Mansfield and M How. Going back in time George is found in the 1841 census at St Andrew Holburn as a builder. Living with him was his wife Anne,age 35 ; five of their children and three servants. George had married Ann Wingfield Bowler(1805-1899) May 12,1824 at St Andrew Holburn.Ann was born in London and died in Tunbridge Wells in the 1st qtr of 1899.The 1861 census, taken at 19 John Street Holburn St Andrew records George as a builder. Living with him was his wife Ann and seven children and two servants. The 1881 census, taken at 19 Broadwater Down records George as a builder employing 80 men and two boys. Living with him were five of his children and three servants. His son George Needham Mansfield(1848-1895) is living with him and is recorded as a cabinet maker employing 80 men. George’s son Harry is still living with him and is recorded as a builder, age 38.

George Mansfield was involved in a number of projects in Tunbridge Wells apart from Broadwater Down and as one example he was the builder of Ely Grange(shown opposite) in Frant, as noted in The Building News of September 16,1881 and again in November 1881. A picture of the building along with details of its owner and architect are given in the articles and states “ it has been carried out by Messrs George Mansfield and Son of Tunbridge Wells”.

The National Archives also holds an agreement between the London,Brighton and South Coast Railway and George Mansfield “builder, Tunbridge Wells” regarding the transfer of land to the railway. There are also papers of the Nevill family concerning  building contracts  and plans with George Mansfield dated 1862 for his work on the Broadwater Down Estate. Probate records give George Mansfield late of 19 Broadwater Down,Tunbridge Wells, builder, died March 4,1882 at 19 Broadwater Down. Poroved by Alfred John Mansfield of 39 South Street Grosvenor Square,Middlesex, builder, and George Needham Mansfield of 114 New Bond Street,Middlesex,cabinet maker, the sons two of the executors. George Left a sizeable estate.


From a review of directories, census records and related documents the following list of occupants has been prepared up to and including 1947, the end of the study period.

1885-1900………………Herbert Jameson Waterlow

1901-1905……………..George Rainy Young and family

1906-1912………………Sir William Dunn and family

1913-1927………………Henry Van Den Bergh and family

1928-1947………………The Phillips family


The first known occupant of the home was Herbert Jameson Waterlow (1846-1921) who was a wealthy wholesale stationer who had been born in Lambeth, Surrey and died in London. He is recorded at 44 Broadwater Down in the 1891 census and 1899 Kelly but left the home before 1901. Mr Waterlow was a distinguished gentleman for whom some six pages is information was given in the 1881 publication ‘Celebrities of the Day’ under the heading of “Ex-Sheriff Waterlow”. When he died he left an estate valued at 75,000 pounds.

An excellent online account about the Waterlow family, entitled ‘The Waterlow Family of London’ should be consulted for more detail about the entire clan dating back to the 1600’s in which many images are presented. This account included some fine information about Herbert Jameson Waterlow and his ancestors and decendents, more detail that I have provided here.

Herbert had been born March 24,1846 in Lambeth, London at 22 York Road.He was one of eight children born to Alfred James Waterlow (1815-1886), born  at St Leonards, Shoreditch, who by 1851 was running a wholesale stationer business. Herbert’s mother was Isabella Jameson, born 1815, from whom the children derived their middle names.

The 1851 census, taken at 22 York Road in Surrey gave Alfred James Waterlow as a wholesale stationer. He was given as married but his wife was not present. With him was his two son James Jameson Waterlow,age 6 and Herbert Jameson Waterlow,age 5. His daughters Florence, ager 3 and Beatrice,age 1 were also there as was one governess and three domestic servants.

At the time of the 1861 census Herbert was away as a pupil at a boys school at Bell Street, Buckland, Surrey.

On April 22,1872 Herbert married Mary Hannah Hill (1852-1927) at Islington St Mary. She had been born at Highbury, Middlesex and died September 21,1927 at 89 Holland Park in South Kensington. She was the third daughter of  John Hill, esq. a banker of 17 West Smithfield.  With Mary, Herbert had two children namely Mark Waterlow (1873-1939) and Edith G. Warterlow (1874-1964). Both of these children were born at Brondsbury, Middlesex.

The 1881 census, taken at 1 The Avenue, in Willesden, Middlesex, gave Herbert as a Sheriff of London and a stationer. With him was his wife Mary Hannah and his children Mark and Edith. Also there were four domestic servants. In 1887 the family was living in Harrow.

As noted earlier there is a six page account about Herbert as the Sherriff of London in ‘Celebrities of the Day’ dated November 1881, which can be viewed in its entirety online. In this account he is referred to as “a city magnate and who was for 23 years a Member of the Common Council of the City of London, and whos father was a member of the same body for more than 40 years. At age 5 Herbert was sent to a school at Frant, near Tunbridge Wells, and five years later to a school kept by Mr John Payne at Reigate. At the age of 15 he was sent to the latge Joseph Payne’s Mansion Grammer School, at Leatherhead, where he remained for two years, and thence sent by his father to learn the business of a manufacturer of paper at Dartford, where he worked in his shirt sleeves in the paper mills of Messrs. T.H. Saunders & Co., for two years and a half. Having mastered the practical part of the business he came to London, where in the early part of 1866 he attended a course of lectures at the College of Chemistry in Oxford Street, after which he went to Paris, where he spent the remaining 6 mths of the year in further study at the College in the Rue Chaptal. He then returned to London, and in January 1867 entered into the business of his father and uncle, then the well-known house of Waterlow & Sons, now known as Waterlow, Brothers, & Layton, of 24 Birchin Lane, with branch establishments in different parts of the Metropolis. He joined the Honorable Artillery Company and entered as a gunner in the Field Battery, and subsequently refused a commission, desiring to master the details of his duties. He is now Quarter-Master Sergeant of the Field Battery, and in the last civic year was the Sheriff of London….In 1879 Mr Waterlow was elected a member of the Court of Assistants of the Hon. Artillery Company. In May last he was entertained at Dover by the officers of the Kent Artillery Militia. He is a man of refined tastes, and takes a special interest in music, in the practice of which he is adept. He has been a member of several choral and musical societie4s and has been a performer on more than one brass instrument in various amateur bands. Due to his other duties he  has had to put his musical interests aside. In 1867 he joined the Livery of the Stationers’ Company, and in 1873 served the office of Renter Warden. In June 1880 he was elected to serve the office of Sheriff of London and Middlesex and was sworn in in the September of the same year”. The article continues with further details of his role as Sheriff. “ Mr Waterlow is a Liberal in his politics, and is a member of the City Liberal Club, as well as of the Gresham. He belongs to the Church of England, being a Broad Churchman and has sittings in the Church of St Mark,Hamilton Terrace. He is a member of the Board of Management of the London Orphan Asylum, at Watford and has recently been appointed a Commissioner of Lieutenancy for the City of London…”

Herbert’s 1st marriage ran into difficulties. It is recorded in the account about the family in London that Herbert took up with a mistress by the name of Mary Ann Payne, nee Barton, the daughter of Robert and Elizabeth Barton. She had married a violinist by the name of John Payne April 22,1884 at St Marylebone but left him. While still married to Mr Payne she had six children with Herbert, who’s births were registered as Waterlow Payne. There is no evidence to show that she ever married Herbert but her death was registered as Marian Waterlow, her name in records given variously as Mary Ann of Marian. She had been born 1858 in London.

In 1888 Herbert and his mistress Marian had a daughter Marjorie Waterlow who was born at Teddington,Middlesex. Her surname of Waterlow was the one that appeared in the 1911 census, and records after that date make no reference to the name Payne.

The 1891 census, taken at the main house 44 Broadwater Down recorded that the occupant/owner of the home was absent but occupied at that time by Alfred H. Thomas, the 28 year old butler and five other servants. At the coachman’s cottage was Thom Probert, a 36 year old coachman with his wife and three children. At the Gardeners Cottage was William Chitly, a 49 year old gardener with his wife and one groom.

The 1899 Kelly recorded Herbert at 44 Broadwater Down, Tunbridge Wells. It appears ,based on the 1901 census that he left Tunbridge Wells in 1900.

The 1901 census, taken at Highwood House, Kingston Hill ,Coombes,Surrey, gave Herbert as a stationer wholesale employing others. With him was his second wife Marian, given as born 1865 in Bermondsey, London. Also there were five of his children; one visitor and  six domestic servants.

The 1911 census, taken at 3 Tavistock Square, London,(image above) gave Herbert as an independent master printer. With him was his wife Marian ; their daughter Marjorie,age 22, “an actress “and three servants. The census recorded that they were living in premises of 12 rooms; that they had been married for 23 years and that all six children were still living. These children of course were from both of Herbert’s marriages.

Probate records gave Herbert Jameson Waterlow of 154 Gloucester Terrace at Hyde Park, Middlesex when he died November 13,1921. The executors of his 6,519 pound estate were Penry Vaughan, Thomas, esq. and Archibald Edward Churcher, solicitor. He was buried in grave 4090 November 16,1921 at the Kingston Upon Thames Cemetery (photo opposite). His “wife” Marian left these premises and moved to 79a Regent Park and by 1929 had moved to Maida Villa. Later still she moved to the south coast and died at Worthing, Sussex in 1939.

Herbert’s daughter Marjorie, born 1888, was noted from the 1911 census an “actress”. From an excellent online account entitled “The Waterlow Family of London” is the following information about her.

“Of Herbert’s six children with Marian, Marjorie studied at the Academy of Dramatic Art and became an actress, well known in theatrical circles in both London and the USA from around 1910, playing with a number of the leading managements. A lovely picture of her hangs in the National Portrait Gallery, and we were immediately struck by the resemblance between her and my grandmother Ethel Hammond and her daughter Gladys Jaggers at a similar age.......

Marjorie never married; in 1914 the London telephone directory lists her living at 37 Sackville Street, Piccadilly. She had to retire from the stage during 1920 due to “an incurable malady”, and died at Kingston at the age of only 32, in the summer of 1921. Shown above is a lovely photo of Marjorie, one of four from the National Portrait Gallery collection, who date all of the photos as works of Bassons Ltd from 1913.


By 1901 the home became the residence of George Rainy Young (1839-1904). This gentleman was a wealthy East India merchant who had been born in British Guiana and although he died in Venice, Italy his probate records gave him as a resident of 44 Broadwater Down, Tunbridge Wells, and left an estate valued at almost 97,000 pounds. His wife Jane Armstrong Young (1847-1930) remained at the home for a short time after the death of her husband but moved to Hyde Park, London, where she died.

George Rainey Young had been born at Demerara, British Guiana (photo opposite dated 1900) in 1839. On March 18,1869, at St Mary, Teddington, Richmond Upon Thames, he married Jane Armstrong Smith, age 22 of Eddington, the daughter of Eddves Adam Smith, a fund holder. George’s father was given the in the marriage records as Peter young, gentleman. Two members of the Smith family were witnesses.

The 1871 census, taken at Bank House on Green Lane in Lancashire gave George as a visitor on his own with the Wood family. At that time George was an East India merchant.

The 1881 census, taken at Stumps Hill, Woodthorpe, Lewisham, London gave George as an East India merchant employing others. With him was his wife Jane Armstrong, who had been born in Liverpool in 1847. Also there were Grace M Young,age 40 and Janet A Young,age 38, both of whom were his sisters and also born in British Guiana. Also there were four domestic servants.

The 1891 census, taken at Bailey’s Hotel on Gloucester Road (postcard view opposite) in Kensington, gave George as an East India merchant employer with his wife Jane.

The 1901 census, taken at 44 Broadwater Down, Tunbridge Wells, gave George4 as an East India merchant employer. With him was his wife Jane and five servants. There is no record indicating that the couple ever had any children. Also from the 1901 census it was noted that George Groombridge, a gardener, and his wife Emma and daughter and Walter Miles, visitor, butler, were living at the Gardeners Cottage, which also served as the entrance lodge. At the coachman’s cottage was William Mansfield,age 43, coachman, with his wife Ellen.

Probate records gave George Rainy Young of Broadwater Place, 44 Broadwater Down, Tunbridge Wells when he died March 7,1905 at Venice Italy. The executor of his 96,625 pound estate was Jasper Murihead, wood merchant and Henry Alexander McPherson, merchant.

Probate records gave Jane Armstrong Young of 3 Hyde Park Terrace, Paddington Middlesex, widow, when she died February 10,1930. The executors of her 99,427 pound estate were Henry Alexander McPherson, merchant, Bernard Wilson, stockbroker, Robert Ernest Foulis Lander, solicitor and Clement Gorden Hope McPherson, merchant.

Both George and Jane were buried in the Tunbridge Wells Borough Cemetery. George on March 19th and Jane on February 13th.


The next family to live in the home was a well-known and wealthy gentleman ‘Sir William Dunn’ (1833-1912) and his wife Lady Sarah Elizabeth Dunn (1842-1919). The couple never had any children. They are listed at “Broadwater Court”, 44 Broadwater Down at  the time of the 1911 census. A photo of William is shown opposite.

William Dunn had been born September 22,1833 at Paisley, Scotland. He was one of five children born to John Dunn(1781-1861) and Isabella Dunn,nee Chalmers (1791-1851). John Dunn, worked most of his life as a grocer in Scotland.

At the time of the 1841 and 1851 census in Scotland, William was living with his parents and siblings. His family origins were modest and began working with his father as a grocer. At age 19 he left Scotland and set off to South Africa to seek his fortune.

In 1859 Will married in South Africa, Sarah Elizabeth Howse. She had been born May 1,1830 at Cape Colony,in South Africa and was the daughter of James Howse (1796-1852) of Grahamstown, Cape Colony, and Sarah Ann Howse, nee Dold (1803-1881). James Howse had emigrated to Algoa Bay,South Africa from Oxfordshire in 1820 and started off as a labourer but later owned the farm “Leeuwfontein”. He was killed in an ambush on the way to his farm on New Year’s day 1852. Shown opposite is a photo of Lady Sarah Elizabeth Dunn late in her life. William and Sarah never had any children, as noted in the 1911 census.

At the time of the 1891 census the William and his wife and several servants were residing at ‘The Retreat’ Lakenheath,Suffolk, a residence they  still occupied at the time of William’s death in 1912. Shown below is a photo of the main house and the gate lodge. To the left is a photo of 34 Phillmore Gardens.

At the time of the 1901 census, they were found at their third residence in Kensington (34 Phillimore Gardens) which they also still occupied in 1912/1919.  In about 1906 they took occupancy of Broadwater Court in Tunbridge Wells, which they used as their country/summer residence.

William Dunn was the 1st Baronet of Lakenheath MP JP FRGS. He was a London banker merchant and philanthropist, Liberal Member of Parliament for Paisley (1891-1906), and from before 1896 until the outbreak of the Second Boer War in 1899 consul general for the Orange Free State in the UK. His fortune was made from a large worldwide trading empire with roots in South Africa, a business which he later controlled from London.

It has been suggested that William received his earliest education at home, although there are also indications that he attended school in the working-class West End District of Paisley. At the age of fourteen he became an apprentice at a local accoutant’s office. In view of the fact that his elder brothers all went to work in spinning and weaving, it seems reasonable to surmise that William, through his intelligence and education, was able to break free from his social environment.

When he emigrated to South Africa in 1852, supported by a friend of his father’s (local Member of Parliament William Barbour) he entered the firm of Mackie & co of Port Elizabeth. After two years, sill only age 21, he was offered a partnership in the firm. Another six years later, in 1860, he succeeded his deceased partner as sole proprietor of the business. Over time, he built up a large worldwide trading empire. Upon his return to England William became the senior partner in the firms of William Dunn & Co, of Broad Street Avenue, London, Dunn & Co of Port Elizabeth; W.Dunn & Co of Durban; and in Dunn & Co of East London. He was also a director of the Royal Exchange Assurance Co and of the Union Discount Co. and chairman of the Home and Foreign Insurance Co.

After his return to England he settled in London, where he entered public service, as alderman for Cheap Ward in the City of London and from 1891 until the dissolution in 1906 as Liberal member of parliament in Paisley. As noted earlier he was consul general of the Orange Free State and was also active as chairman of the South African section of the London Chamber of Commerce and member of the Executive Council of that institution. Will was created a baronet in 1895. The baronetcy became extinct upon his death. Shown opposite is an image of William taken February 14,1899 of him in a velvet Court Dress at Lafayette3 Studio 179 New Bond Street, London.

William Dunn left quite a legacy and his philanthropic work was noteworthy, as noted from the Wikipedia website, which stated “Despite his noble gestures in death, described below, Dunn's background and business dealings are shady. During his lifetime and after he received a bad press. He was called "pathologically mean" and "a social climber who married for money". It was rumoured that he sold liquor to the African population in the Eastern Cape. Once in Parliament he allegedly did everything in his power to further his own agenda. And with his will something was amiss as well. His wife contested it and won. On the other hand, there is little evidence to substantiate the accusations and rumours.Dunn had no natural heirs and left his fortune to charity. In his will, dated 4 November 1908, Dunn prescribed that his inheritance had to be made available for the advancement of Christianity and the benefit of children and young people, for the support of hospitals, as well as "to alleviate human suffering, to encourage education and promote emigration". Dunn allotted about half his capital himself and created the Dunn Chair of New Testament Theology at Westminster College, Cambridge. The settlement of the rest of his inheritance he left to his trustees.After handing out a large number of small grants to hospitals, nursing homes, orphanages, etc., the trustees decided on a grander scheme. In co-operation with Sir William Bate Hardy, secretary of the Royal Society and Sir Walter Morley Fletcher, the secretary of the Medical Research Committee, they decided to fund research in biochemistry and pathology. To this end they funded Professor Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861–1947) in Cambridge with a sum of £210,000 in 1920 for the advancement of his work in biochemistry.”

Two years later they endowed Professor Georges Dreyer (1873–1934) of the Oxford University with a sum of £100,000 for research in pathology.The money enabled each of the recipients to establish a chair and sophisticated teaching and research laboratories, the Sir William Dunn Institute of Biochemistry at Cambridge and the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology at Oxford. Between them, the two establishments have yielded ten Nobel Prize winners, including Hopkins, for the discovery of vitamins, and professors Howard Florey and Ernst Chain (Oxford), for their developmental work on penicillin.The Dunn Trustees also endowed the Dunn Nutritional Laboratory at Cambridge, which opened in 1927. The Dunn Laboratories at Cambridge and at Oxford are forever associated with major discoveries that have helped alleviate human suffering, facts that would surely have pleased Sir William and his trustees.” Shown above is a photo of the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology.

The Evening Express of May 7,1906 report that Sir William Dunn had gifted 150,000 pounds to the Presbyterian Church of England. Closer to home, the Kent & Sussex Courier of August 18,1916 reported under the heading “Fashionable and Person” an account regarding Sir William Dunn’s early professional associations in Tunbridge Wells.

Dunn himself made more earthly gifts, like the donation – to his birthplace Paisley in 1894 – of a square, "to be kept for the enjoyment of all the inhabitants", which was named "Dunn Square". Shown opposite is a photo of Dunn Square. James Donald was the architect and was gifted by William while a MP for Paisley.  William had purchased the land for 4,000 pounds. His intention was to prevent it being built upon and to make it a quiet retreat, hence the beautiful landscaping. The works cost $9,000 and continued the Italianate style of the Town Hall and St James Bridge. The railings to the south and west sides were removed during the metal drive of WW II.  

The 1911 census taken at 44 “Broadwater Court” gave Sir William Dunn as a coffee merchant. With him was his wife Lady Sarah Elizabeth Dunn; three nieces,aged 27-58 and single; three housemaids, one cook, one kitchen maid, one pastry cook, a butler and because of their advancing ages two nursing attendants. The census recorded that the home had 22 rooms; that they had been married for 51 years, and that they never had any children. In the same census, at No. 44 The Lodge was George Rideout Simpson, age 35, the chauffeur and his wife Katherine and one year old daughter Nora, living in premises of four rooms. At No. 44 Broadwater Court Stables was Frederick George Palmer, age 53, the coachman, and his wife Edith and 22 year old groom Albert Palmer. The census did not record the presence of a gardener which is surprising giving the fact that the grounds had been extensively landscaped and in addition to a lovely display of flowers, shrubs, trees and lawn there was an orchard and greenhouse, which can be seen on the 1907 OS map presented earlier.

Probate records gave Sir William Dunn of 34, Phillimore Gardens Kensington,Middlesex and of The Retreat,Lakenheath, Suffolk, baronet who died March 31,1912 at Broadwater Court, Tunbridge Wells. The executors of his 750,000 pound estate were Harry Mann esq. the Syndic of the Commercial Union Assurance Company Ltd. There was also a former grant on January 8th in which the executor was Evan Roger Owen, managing director. William was buried at the West Norwood Cemetery and Crematorium, West Norwood, London Borough of Lambeth in Greater London on April 4th. A photo of his grave is shown opposite.

Probate records for Dame Sarah Elizabeth Dunn gave her of 34 Phillimore Gardens, Kensington, Middlesex when she died February 2,1919. The executors of her 151,328 pound estate were Hubert Charles Hollebone, Lieut. H.M. Army, Eric Geoffrey Hollebone,captain H.M. Army, and Henry Chicheley Haddawe, solicitor. She was also buried in the West Norwood Cemetery.


After the Dunn family left the home it became the residence of Henry Van Den Bergh (1851-1937) and his wife Henrietta Charlotte Van Den Bergh (1868-1927), both of whom had been born in Holland. Henry was a wealthy provisions merchant who had many employees and operated his business in London but commuted to Tunbridge Wells and resided there during the summer season and holidays. He is found listed at 44 Broadwater Down in the directories of 1913,1918 and 1922.  He had married Hentrietta Charlotte Spanjaard in 1887 and with her had six children, all born in London.

Henry had been born September 7,1851 at Geffen, Netherlands. His was the son of Simon Van Den Bergh (1819-1907) and Elizabeth Van Den Bergh, nee Van Den Wielen (1821-1907). A photo of Simon is shown above. Simon Van Den Bergh (1819-1907), the founder of the van den Bergh fortune, had seven sons.

Shown below is a photo of Simon Van Den Bergh and his family and also a view of the exterior of their home in Rotterdam. Both images are dated 1903.

The 1881 census, taken at 24 Clephane Road at St Mary, Islington, London gave Henry as a boarder living with the Philip Lesew family. Henry at that time was a merchant.

On August 1,1887 Henry married Henrietta Charlotte Spinjword at Borne, Netherlands (1868-1927). Henrietta had been born at Borne,Netherlands in 1868 and was the daughter of David Spanjaard and Dian Spanjaard, nee Prins.

The 1891 census, taken at Stralbray Gardens. Hampstead, London gave Henry as a provision merchant employer. With him was his wife Henrietta and their children Donald Stanley (1881-1949) and Seymour (1890-1917). The couple also had the children Dorset,born 1897; Robert,born 1905 and Elsieborn 1905. All of the children were born in London.

Henry’s son Seymour served and died in WW 1. An image of him and his headstone are shown here. An obituary of him stated “Captain Seymour Jacob Van den Bergh (or Vandenbergh) was an English officer of the British Army who died during the First World War. He was born on 28 July 1890, in Hampstead, the son of Dutch-born parents Henry and Henriette Van den Bergh (née Spanjaard). His father was chairman of the family margarine business, which later merged with Lever Brothers to form Unilever. Educated at Clifton and Balliol College, between 1909 and 1913, Van den Burgh was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Middlesex Hussars in 1915. While serving with his regiment, Van den Bergh died on 27 October 1917, in the Battle of El Buggar Ridge during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign against the Ottoman Empire. He belonged to a detachment holding Hill 720, which came under sustained attack for several hours before being overwhelmed. Just four men were able to escape. He had previously been on the Western Front. His brother, James, died there while a lieutenant in the Royal Field Artillery. He is buried in Beersheba War Cemetery, Israel. Both Seymour and his brother James are listed on the war memorial plaque inside St Mark’s Church on Broadwater Down. A photo of the plaque is shown opposite. Given below from St Mark’s Church are the transcriptions for Seymour as well as his brother James.

“VAN DEN BERGH, SEYMOUR. Captain.Middlesex Hussars.Died Saturday 27 October 1917. Aged 27.Born Hampstead, London. Resided Kensington Palace Gardens, London.Son of Henry Van den Bergh and Henriette Charlotte Van den Bergh (néeSpanjaard) of 8, Kensington Palace Gardens, London.Buried Beersheba War Cemetery, Israel. Grave Ref: Q. 13.Also commemorated on the East Ham United Synagogue Roll of Honour.The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, University of Oxford,Beaumont Street, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 2PH, received a number of objects and paintings over a period spanning several years, which were very generously donated by the Van den Bergh family in memory of James and Seymour.”

“VAN DEN BERGH, JAMES HENRY. Lieutenant.6th London Brigade, Royal Field Artillery.Died Sunday 21 May 1916. Aged 23.Born Hampstead, London. Resided Kensington Palace Gardens, London.Son of Henry Van den Bergh and Henriette Charlotte Van den Bergh (néeSpanjaard) of 8, Kensington Palace Gardens, London.Commemorated on the Arras Memorial, Par de Calais, France. Bay 1, and on the East Ham United Synagogue Roll of Honour.James was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the 6th London Brigade,Royal Field Artillery with effect from Saturday 29 August 1914, as was published in The London Gazette on 28 August 1914. He served on the Western Front with the Royal Field Artillery from Sunday 16 March 1915, at which time he was a 25 Second Lieutenant. He was killed in action at Vimy Ridge, Pas de Calais, France.Initially James was posted as ‘Missing,’ but subsequently the Army Council made the decision that for official purposes it was to be assumed that he had died on or after 21 May 1916. He was a brother of the next casualty briefly commemorated above, they being the only Commonwealth war casualties with the surname Van den Bergh. Henry Van den Bergh the father of James and Seymour was born at the Dutch town of Geffen on Saturday 6 September 1851. He married Miss Henriette Charlotte Spanjaard at the Dutch town of Borne on Monday 1 August 1887, which is the town where Henriette was born in 1868.”

Both Seymour and James are recorded on one of the plaques of the Tunbridge Wells War Memorial on Mount Pleasant Road. A photo of this war memorial bearing their names is shown opposite. Several years ago I wrote an article about this war memorial in which I gave details about its history and a transcription of all the names on it from WW 1(801) as well as those from WW II. Also shown (above left) is the plaque in St Mark's Church Broadwater Down bearing their names.

The 1901 census, taken at London gave Henry as a provision merchant employer. With him was his wife Henrietta, his three children Donald, Se4ymour and Dorset and three servants.

Directories throughout the period of 1903 to 1918 list Henry at 8 Kensington Place in London but as noted above also lived at 44 Broadwater Down, which they treated as their country home. Built between 1843-6, No.8 Kensington Palace Gardens was designed by Owen Jones (1809 – 1874). Influenced by Islamic architecture he encountered in Egypt, Turkey and Spain during his early twenties, Jones’s plans for the house included a significant amount of ‘Moresque’ design. Photographs of the 1880s interior of the house show, amongst other things, a dedicated music room (photo opposite)hung with exotic stringed instruments and complete with a pipe organ built in to the wall.

The 1911 census, taken at 8 Kensington Palace, London gave Henry as a merchant employer. With him was his wife Henrietta ; his children Seymour, Dorset, Robert and Eslie; one governess and thirteen domestic servants. The census recorded that they were living in premises of 25 rooms; that they had been married 23 years and had six children, all of whom were still living.

Probate records gave Henrietta Charlotte Van Den Bergh of 8 Kensington Palace Gardens, Kensington, and of Broadwater Court, Tunbridge Wells (wife of Henry Van Den Bergh) when she died April 3,1927 at The Hague, Holland. Her husband Henry, a company director, was the executor of her 4,087 pound estate.

Probate records for Henry Van Den Bergh gave him of 8 Kensington Palace Gardens, Kensington when he died March 12,1937 at Ville Arcadia 161 Avenue de la Lanterne, Nice, France. The executors of his 158,907 pound estate were Donald Stanley Van Den Bergh, the son, of no occupation; George Frederick Prins, merchant, and Isaac Spanjaard Dzn, cotton manufacturer; Elkes Nathan Adler, Solicitor. Henry’s death was widely reported on in Netherlands newspapers.


The last resident of 44 Broadwater, during the study period up to post WW II was the Phillips family, consisting initially in the 1930 Kelly directory with Arthur Isaac Phillips and his family, and in the 1934 and 1938 Kelly directories by his son Philip Arthur Godfrey Phillips and his family. I have written extensively before about this family in my article ‘The History of Holden House’ dated March 26,2014. The Sevenoaks Chronicle and Kentish Advertiser of November 14,1947 announced “ Mrs Blanche Phillips and Mr Philip Godfrey Phillips have removed from Broadwater Court, their permanent address will be Holden House, Southborough”. Several references to Blanche Phillips were found in the Kent & Sussex Courier such as that of October 23,1931 w.r.t. Col Spencer Clay. A photo of Holden House is shown opposite.

From my article about Holden House is the following information about the Phillips family.

Philip Arthur Godfrey Phillips(1905-1981) is listed in local directories of 1963 to 1982 inclusive at Holden House,Southborough.  However, an advertisment in The Argus dated September 18,1952 regarding an offer of shares of G.P. Holdings Limited which held shares of Godfrey Phillips (Australia) PTY LTD recorded that Philip Arthur Godfrey Phillips of Holden House,Southborough , was one of the directors of the company, so he was a resident of Holden House at least as late as 1952. The London Gazette of January 14,1982 announced the death of Philip Arthur Godfrey Phillips  “of Holden House, Holden road, Southborough” on December 27,1981. The executors of his estate were Sydney David Godfrey Phillips  (his brother) and Jeffrey Carl Brown.

P.A.G.Godfrey Phillips  was a tobacco magnate (tobacco manufacturer) and a founder of the Southborough Society. It was speculated by Chris Jones “that Godfrey may have been the son of “Artie” of Mrs Phillips of 44 Broadwater Down, who was ‘very rich’ according to Richard Cobb (Still Life p74)…the Phillips were from Mustard Hill.After Godfrey’s death Holden House became a care home and the gardens  were put up for sale”.  There was also an auction catalogue prepared to sell off some of his estate and was published April 1,1882 published by Philips Auctioneers, London. .

Chris’s reference to “ Artie” must be the nickname of Philip’s father Arthur Isaac Phillips, the son of Philip Phillips (1850-1931). Arthur married in 1900 Blanch Sophia Van den Bergh (1879-1962), the daughter of Jacob Van den Bergh and Lydia Isaacson. Arthur Isaac Phillips had three children (1) Iris Blanch Phillips born 1901 (2) Philip Arthur Godfrey Phillips (1905-1981) and (3) Sydney David Godfrey Phillips (1913-1997).

Also Chris’s reference to Broadwater Down is supported by a story written by Pamela Hoath in the summer of 2003 about her rememberances of WW II in Tunbridge Wells. In part she said “Living in Kent, near Tunbridge Wells, father worked for a tobacco manufacturer, Sir Godfrey Phillips as his chauffeur. Our flat was situated over the workshop and garages, which housed amongst other cars, a black Rolls Royce and a green Bentley. The grounds of the estate swept down a hillside to green fields at the bottom, where there was a small farm of chickens, ducks, geese, rabbits and pigs. In the grounds itself stood an ornate fountain where goldfish swam around. There were two tennis courts and a blue and white tiled swimming pool. Growing all their own fruit and vegetables in the gardens, large greenhouses were filled with peaches, pineapples and grapes. In the orchid house exotic flowers bloomed. Vast green lawns surrounded by trees were in the Summer archery and croquet was played there. Wide flower borders lined every walkway. From spring to autumn flowers and shrubs blossomed, the scent from 10feet high azaleas filling the air. Four gardeners maintained this.An avenue of leafy-green lime trees filled the mile long road outside. Its nickname was ‘Millions Row’ because the houses were luxury built. The real name was Broadwater Down. We looked out at Broadwater Forest from our end of the road, but this was about to change”. Later in her storey she comments on how many homes in Broadwater down were taken over by the army .She refers to No. 10 Broadwater Down being at “the other end of the road from us”. She continues with a reference to 1941 -.” Petrol was in short supply. Father’s boss, Sir Godfrey went out and bought a pony and trap for him to drive instead. To help in the war effort the gardeners on the estate were now growing more fruit and vegetables to sell to the local shops. I would go with Father in the pony and trap to deliver goods. Growing all these extra crops, meant the fields now grew wheat whereas before we used to harvest hay for the farm animals. The boss took on two Land Army girls to help and bought two tractors for the harvest and potato picking. In fact we all joined in to help when the harvest was ready”.

The tobacco empire was founded in 1826 by Godfrey Phillips (1826-1900) of Godfrey Phillips & Sons.They had commenced business in the Barbican, London, as cigar manufacturers in 1844, having earlier serving an apprentiship with Maurice Newman in Alie Place, London. Godfrey had been born in October 1826 at Shadwell and died August 21,1900 at Hackney, Greater London. The following information about the business and the members of the family are from the Find a Grave website, as does the photo shown opposite of Godfrey Phillips.

“Godfrey Phillips, founder in 1826 of Godfrey Phillips & Sons commenced business in the Barbican, London, as a cigar manufacturer in 1844, having earlier served an apprenticeship with Maurice Newman in Alie Place, London. He married Elizabeth Phillips in 1846. Ten years after Godfrey's death, in 1910, the company was listed on the London Stock Exchange. Godfrey Phillips was primarily a manufacturing company and made cigarette brands like Cavanders, Abdulla No. 7, De Reske, Marcovich, Red & White. In 1951/52 Godfrey Phillips UK bought out George Dobie & Son's, famous Four Square brand. It also diversified into other business such as the Spencer Greeting Cards. The company was never opened on a Saturday and its employees were not overpaid but "there was always work there" and it had a good reputation. Family members employed at the factory were paid exactly the same as any other employees would have been. Godfrey Phillips Tobacco Plc was the subject of a takeover bid in 1968 by Philip Morris Inc. and family shareholders with "B" shares lost control. The company name remains today only in India, where it is stockmarket listed but has no connection with the founder family. There are many collectors of the cigarette pack cards today like the one shown opposite. Godfrey and Elizabeth had 13 children. All their sons and some grandsons had positions at the family tobacco firm. Many other relatives worked there too. Family links: Parents:Henry (also Michael) Phillips (1802 - 1848) Maria Isaacs Abrahams (1804 - 1888). Spouses(1)  Elizabeth Phillips Phillips (1826 - 1894)*(2)Matje Van Amerongen Phillips (1856 - 1955)*. Children: (1) Joseph Phillips (1846 - 1935)*(2)Morris Phillips (1848 - 1863)*(3) Philip Phillips (1850 - 1931)*(4) Phineas Phillips (1852 - 1930)*(5)Samuel Phillips (1853 - 1910)*(6) Leah Phillips Oppenheim (1856 - 1911)*(7) Harriet Phillips Van Zwanenberg (1859 - 1933)*(8)Elizabeth Phillips Klemantaski (1861 - 1935)*(9)Alfred Abraham Phillips (1869 - 1945)*. Godfrey was buried at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery, West Ham,Greater London, England in Plot: Section E Row 14 Plot 29”



Written By: Edward James Gilbert-Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

Date: November 6,2016

A number of postcard publishing companies produced views of Tunbridge Wells. Among them was a company in London called Shurey’s Publishing. It was a large magazine publishing company located at 11 Gough Square, London. They included postcards as free inserts in their magazines to increase sales. Many of them were artist drawn images that covered views throughout England and its colonies plus romantic and military themes. In this brief article I provide the only two known examples of their postcards for Tunbridge Wells, both of which date to before 1906.

The postcards bore the name of the relevant magazine series such as 'Smart Novels' (image above )’Yes and No’ and 'Dainty Novels'. They published low cost novels and reference books. The postcards were printed in chromolithography with dots in ruled lines, possibly from shading mediums. Many of their cards were manufactured by Doolittle, Fenwick & Co. in York, Allday Ltd. in Birmingham, and Nimmo in Edinburgh. Shown left is a partial view of he back of their divided back postcards.

 The first incarnation of the Schoolgirl story paper was in February 1922, the product of Shurey's which was a publishing company set up by two brothers Charles and Harry Shurey. Charles' first publication was a boy’s story paper in 1893 called Comrades, which followed on the heels of the Amalgamated Press publication Chums. Over the years there were many varied titles including Yes Or No (1904-22) and the Weekly Tale-Teller (1909-16), and many girls papers including Girls' Mirror (1915-34). The Schoolgirl had a short and unremarkable run of 56 issues to Mar 1923 when it folded and disappeared. However, it had a female Editor, something the AP never had for their girls papers. In Aug 1929 the AP took up the name and started their own story paper publication which was to last until May 1940. Shurey's itself ceased publication in 1935 shortly after Charles' death.




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